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body language

nonverbal communication expressed consciously or unconsciously through gestures, postures, and movements

display rule

standard way of expressing emotions within a group or culture; guideline for types and frequencies of emotions considered acceptable to display in public

embodied emotion

physiological arousal and bodily reaction that accompanies a feeling

extrinsic motivation

drive to engage in a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid an unwanted consequence

facial expression

motion or position of the facial muscles that can convey an emotion

facial feedback hypothesis

idea that facial expressions can influence emotions and change moods


attitudes, interests, behaviors, and activities a culture associates with being biologically male or female

gender identity

sense of oneself as male, female, or being elsewhere on the gender spectrum

gender roles

cultural expectations about how men and women should think, feel, and act

hedonic adaptation

tendency of people to return quickly to baseline levels of happiness after positive or negative events


balanced or optimal level maintained within a biological system

intrinsic motivation

drive to engage in behavior because one finds the behavior itself rewarding


hormone released by fat cells that signals fullness

metabolic rate

rate at which an individual expends energy


reason or driving force behind one's actions and behaviors

nonverbal leakage

revealing an emotional state through body language or facial expressions despite a desire to conceal the emotion

positive illusions

unrealistic favorable attitudes people have toward themselves or the people around them

positive psychology

scientific study of the biological, social, and cultural factors that boost happiness and make life most enjoyable, worthwhile, and fulfilling

refractory period

time in the sexual response cycle during which an individual cannot physically experience another orgasm; occurs after orgasm and during resolution


individual's belief in his or her ability to complete tasks successfully

set point

a value where the physiological state of the body is stable


chromosomes, hormones, and sexual anatomy that differ between males, females, and people who are intersex

sexual desire

drive to seek out sexual objects or partners to engage in sexual activities

sexual orientation

individual's emotional and erotic attractions toward another individual, commonly categorized as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual

sexual response cycle

model of physical responses to sexual stimulation, progressing through stages called excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution


being a person with a gender identity that does not match their assigned birth sex

universal emotions

a set of emotions recognized worldwide, including happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, contempt, and anger