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prototypical models of people, ideas, and behaviors that exist within the collective unconscious

Big Five

the best-researched personality traits, including openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

collective unconscious

universal shared memory, inherited from human and pre-human ancestors, containing archetypes, myths, symbols, and concepts

defense mechanisms

unconscious behaviors used to protect oneself from discomfort and reduce anxiety


part of the mind that is the self; the rational part of a person seen by others

external locus of control

belief that people's outcomes are outside their control


person who is outgoing and energized by being around other people

factor analysis

statistical technique that identifies clusters of related items


the unconscious part of the mind that wants immediate gratification for primitive urges, such as hunger, thirst, and sex

inferiority complex

person's belief that they lack worth and do not measure up to societal standards

internal locus of control

belief that people control their own outcomes


person who is energized by his or her own inner activity and by being quiet, reserved, and alone


person's own unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

personality trait

enduring characteristic reflected in a person's mental, emotional, and behavioral patterns

pleasure principle

the id's instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain

positive psychology

scientific study of happiness and life purpose

projective personality tests

tests designed to maximize ambiguity to allow the person to reveal unconscious aspects of their personality


interaction between conscious and unconscious motivations that influences behavior and personality

reality principle

idea that the ego's job is to satisfy the demands of the id by balancing internal urges with behavior that works in the real world

reciprocal determinism

concept in which behavior, the environment, and internal personal factors interact and influence one another simultaneously


person's drive to develop to their full potential


person's beliefs about who the self is


part of the mind that acts as the conscience and moral compass


defined pattern of behavior that distinguishes one person from another