Individuals tend to conform for one of the following reasons:
- normative—to be liked by others and fit in
- informational—to be correct
- identification—to conform to an implied social role
People may also conform to follow a behavioral or social script. A social script refers to the expected behaviors, actions, and consequences for a specific situation. Social scripts tend to be culturally constructed. When dining at a restaurant in the United States, it is common practice to leave a tip for the server in addition to paying one's bill. In Japan, however, tipping at restaurants is rare. In fact, tipping may be considered rude to service providers who strive to provide excellent service at the given price. Culture can also influence the extent to which people conform to social scripts. For example, group conformity is emphasized in collectivistic societies (e.g., China) but not in individualistic societies (e.g., the United States). Members of collectivistic societies are expected to strive to benefit the group rather than themselves. Members of individualistic societies tend to focus on fulfilling their own independent aspirations.
Psychologists have long been interested in conformity. In 1951 psychologist Solomon Asch conducted an experiment to see if participants would conform to the majority view even when the given answer was incorrect. A group of eight people was asked to identify which line in a set of three matched the line pictured on a separate card. Seven of these people were confederates, or fake participants. There was only one real participant, who did not realize the other seven were confederates. In 12 trials the seven confederates gave an incorrect answer, and the real participant answered last. The real participant conformed to the majority answer at least once in 75% of trials even though it was clearly incorrect. Asch's experiment also contained six control trials with no pressure to conform. In the control condition, only 1% of participants gave the wrong answer. After the experiment, participants reported having conformed for two reasons. Some wanted to fit in with the group: they had gone along with the consensus to avoid being different. Others believed the group was better informed then they were and that the majority answer was truly correct. In variations on this study, simply having one other person in the group give the correct answer reduced rates of conformity.
Asch Conformity Experiment
|Condition||Sample Stimuli||Responses to the Line-Matching Task||Study Results|
|Individual control: The participants completed the line-matching task alone.||Participant: “Line 3 matches.”||Participants working alone gave the correct answer virtually every time.
This shows people can easily complete the line-matching task.
|Group control trials: The participant responded after confederates posing as participants each gave the correct answer.||Confederates 1 through 7: “Line 3 matches.”
Participant: “Line 3 matches.”
|When confederates gave the correct answer, participants also gave the correct answer.|
|Group critical trials: The participant responded after confederates each gave the same wrong answer.||Confederates 1 through 7: “Line 2 matches.”
Participant: “Line 2 matches.”
|When confederates gave the wrong answer, some participants also gave the wrong answer.
About 75% of participants conformed at least once over 12 trials.
Obedience and Compliance
Many people will conform to an authority figure's demands even if doing so harms others. In 1963 social psychologist Stanley Milgram sought to test the validity of a Nazi war criminal's defense that he was "just following orders." In Milgram's experiment 40 male volunteers were told they were participating in a study to improve learning and memory. A "researcher" instructed participants to use a device to deliver increasingly strong electric shocks to "learners" when the learners repeated lists of word pairs incorrectly. The learners were actually confederates who were only pretending to be shocked. Milgram told participants the shocks would motivate learning.Most participants repeatedly shocked the learners as instructed, even administering shocks up to 450 volts. At a certain point in the experiment, the learners gave cries for help, complained of heart trouble, and begged the participants to stop. Even if participants expressed concern for the learners' health, the researcher told them they must continue. A surprising 65% of participants obeyed, continuing with maximum-voltage shocks to the point that the learner became unresponsive. This experiment enabled Milgram to measure participants' propensity to conform when under pressure from an authority figure.
Obedience Levels in Milgram Shock Experiment
Variations on the Milgram Shock Experiment
|Variations on the Milgram Experiment||Obedience Rates|
|Moved to an office building||48%|
|Learner in the same room as participant||40%|
|Learner and participant touching||30%|
|Orders given by phone||23%|
Feelings of anonymity and deindividuation, or a loss of self-awareness in groups, may lead to uninhibited behavior such as rule-breaking or violence. On social media sites and message boards, for example, individuals can hide behind a pseudonym to voice controversial views or even harass others. Hazing in fraternities is another instance in which people may engage in risky or dangerous behavior that they otherwise would not due to group pressure. Being part of a group leads people to feel less personally responsible for their choices. Being part of a group can also amplify energy and emotion. For example, people who would never smash a window by themselves might smash a window while surrounded by a crowd of rioters. Not all aspects of deindividuation and emotional amplification are bad. People often have more fun watching a sporting event, seeing a movie, or dancing as part of a large group than they would with a small group.Group polarization refers to the ability of group discussion to shift people to positions that are more extreme than their initial opinions. In group polarization, extreme opinions (both positive and negative) attract attention and elicit other extreme opinions. These skew the entire group toward a more extreme decision than individual members might have made on their own. Group polarization occurs in various group settings, such as teams (e.g., in sports or at work) and organized groups (e.g., self-help groups). For example, hockey players may be undecided over whether to try a potentially risky play during a game. The team as a whole might lean toward trying it, but some players may prefer to try a safer play instead. After discussing the play as a group, however, the team may become fully invested in making a risky play.
However, the presence of others is not always problematic. Social facilitation occurs when an individual performs better in front of an audience than when alone. This is common in skilled activities, such as when athletes compete at a sporting event or when musicians perform on stage. They feed off the energy and excitement of the crowd, which can lead to improved performance. When a person is unskilled or nervous, a crowd can also amplify those feelings and hinder the person's performance.