Gender identity is the internal sense of oneself as male, female, both, neither, or something else. Gender identity is a personal choice, chosen internally by an individual. Gender expression is the external manifestation of an individual's gender identity. Also called gender manifestation, gender expression is usually expressed through behavior, clothing and hairstyle choices, spoken voice, or body characteristics. People's gender identity does not always match their gender expression. Heteronormativity is the assumption that all people are heterosexual, or that heterosexuality is the default or normal state of human being. It includes the expectation that biological sex, gender, and gender expression always align. For example, a heteronormative expectation is that individuals with male sex characteristics also identify as male (their gender identity is male).
Behaviors that are compatible with societal expectations about gender are referred to as gender normative. Aligning oneself with society's view of gender is called gender conformity. Behaving in ways that are incompatible with societal expectations about gender is referred to as gender nonconformity. The adjective cisgender describes an individual whose gender identity aligns with the sex assigned to them at birth. The adjective transgender describes a person whose gender identity does not align with the sex assigned at birth. Transgender people might identify as either male or female, neither, or something else. Sexual orientation refers to whether individuals are sexually attracted to people of the same sex (homosexual), people of the opposite sex (heterosexual), or both (bisexual). Sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression are each distinct concepts. Both cisgender and transgender people may be heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual (without sexual desire). The acronym LGBTQIA, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual, is an umbrella term that refers to the diverse community of people who do not identify as heterosexual and cisgender.