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agent of socialization

person, institution, or group that contributes to the formal and informal socialization of a person, such as parents and family, school, peers, media, religion, or cultural beliefs and traditions


adjective describing an individual whose gender identity aligns with the sex assigned to them at birth


branch of feminism that focuses on the connection between women and nature and the unjust dominance men have over both


belief that women and men are equal and should have equal rights


social construction based on a set of attitudes, interests, behaviors, activities, and appearances that a society considers to be typically masculine or feminine

gender discrimination

unjust treatment of and prejudice toward women

gender expression

external manifestation of an individual's gender identity

gender identity

internal sense of oneself as male, female, both, neither, or something else

gender inequality

unwarranted discrepancy in treatment between men and women, or boys and girls

gender norm

behavior or set of behaviors that are compatible with societal expectations of masculinity and femininity

gender role

set of behaviors, attitudes, and personality characteristics associated with masculinity or femininity. People are typically expected to perform gender roles based on their sex.

gender socialization

process of acquiring the norms, beliefs, values, and behaviors associated with masculinity and femininity

glass ceiling

metaphorical, unofficial barrier that prevents women from advancing past a certain point in their professions, despite having qualifications and achievements


assumption that heterosexuality is the default or "normal" sexual orientation for humans


framework for examining how factors of social stratification such as gender, age, race, class, and sexual orientation are not separate, but intertwined


adjective describing people who have a combination of male and female sex characteristics, including chromosome combinations and anatomy that are not distinctly male or female


lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual; an umbrella term that refers to the diverse community of people who do not identify as heterosexual and cisgender

liberal feminism

branch of feminism that focuses on working within the mainstream social structure to gain equality for women

male bias

tendency to value men's perspectives and opinions, considering them to be norms or universal


hatred of or contempt for women


hierarchical social system that places men in control of economic, cultural, and political structures

pay gap

relative difference between men's wages and women's wages

radical feminism

branch of feminism that focuses on eliminating gender roles and patriarchal structures

second shift

workload that women have waiting for them in the home, far exceeding the household responsibilities that men have, after they finish their paying job


identification based on anatomical and biological differences between males and females


prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination against women

social construction

idea that is created and accepted by society


right to vote in elections


adjective describing an individual whose gender identity does not align with the sex assigned at birth