Master Budget

Sales Budget and Selling and Administrative Expense Budget

Since creating the sales budget is the first step in creating a master budget, it is crucial that the sales budget is accurate so that the remainder of the master budget is as precise as possible.

Creation of an operating budget begins with the preparation of a sales budget. A sales budget is a detailed plan showing the expected sales of a company's products over the course of the budget period. The sales budget is usually created by a company's sales and marketing departments. The sales budget will forecast how many units the company expects to sell and how much it will charge for various products.

To prepare the sales budget, an accountant multiplies forecasted unit sales by the budgeted sales price per unit for all product types and product lines. The total budgeted sales revenue for all products then flows into the pro forma income statement as budgeted sales revenue. If the company is planning price increases or decreases or it is planning to introduce new products or discontinue product offerings, then managers should make sure that the sales budget reflects this information. Sometimes the creation of a sales budget may require the use of sophisticated models and statistical tools that assist company analysts in making their projections more accurate.

Heavenly Sleep Systems is beginning the budget process for the new year. Its first step is the sales budget. Heavenly sells its units at $100 each in the first half of the year and intends to raise prices to $110 for the second half of the year. The company estimates that it will sell 12,000 units in Quarter 1, 10,000 in Quarter 2, 12,050 in Quarter 3, and 14,000 in Quarter 4.

Sample Sales Budget

Heavenly Sleep Systems
Sales Budget
For Year Ended December 31, 2019
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
Budgeted Sales (Units) 12,000 10,000 12,050 14,000
Sales Price per Unit $100 $100 $110 $110
Budgeted Sales (in $) $1,200,000 $1,000,000 $1,325,500 $1,540,000

The sales budget indicates how many units and at what price the company anticipates selling during the year.

An accurate sales budget is the key to the entire budgeting process. If the sales budget is inaccurate, then the rest of the budget will be inaccurate as well. Since the sales budget drives most of the other components of the master budget, it is also important that it be as realistic as possible. If the sales and marketing departments are too optimistic in their sales forecast, then managers may produce or buy too much inventory. As a result, the company will spend money unnecessarily and may fail to achieve its budgeted income targets.

Questions to Ask about the Sales Budget

Determining a sales budget may seem like a simple calculation. However, in real life, management may need to take many factors and plans into account to make sure that this budget is truly accurate.
The sales budget influences the selling and administrative expense budget and feeds into the production budget, which the company uses to determine how much product needs to be produced during the budget period.

After the creation of the sales budget, the company can create its selling and administrative expense budget. To support the sales levels forecasted in the sales budget, a company will have administrative expenses. The selling and administrative expense budget estimates when and how much of these costs the organization will incur. Items that typically appear in a selling and administrative expense budgets are non-product costs, also referred to as period costs. Examples of such costs are administrative salaries, advertising, sales commissions, office building rent and utilities, and other such expenses that are not directly related to making products.

Heavenly plans to have four sales representatives in the first half of the year and six representatives on staff in the second half of the year to support higher sales in the second half of the year. Each sales representative earns $5,000 per quarter plus 2% commission on sales. Heavenly also plans to have three administrative assistants to handle general office duties. Each of the administrative assistants will also earn $5,000 per quarter. Finally, Heavenly plans to spend $25,000 per quarter on a new advertising campaign.

Sample Sales and Administrative Budget

Heavenly Sleep Systems
Sales and Administrative Budget
For Year Ended December 31, 2019
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
Sales Staff Wages $20,000 $20,000 $30,000 $30,000
Sales Commissions $24,000 $20,000 $26,510 $30,800
Administrative Staff $15,000 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000
Advertising $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000
Total Selling and Administrative Costs $84,000 $80,000 $96,510 $100,800

The sales and administrative budget outlines the sales and administrative costs for the coming year.

Total budgeted selling and administrative expenses flow to the pro forma income statement, which means that it can be created as soon as the sales budget is completed but is not required to be completed until the operating budget as a whole is created.