Applied Microbiology

Vocabulary

antibiotic

antimicrobial chemotherapy agent used as a drug for the treatment of an infection

bioreactor

industrial system that relies on a biological process

bioremediation

use of microorganisms to remove or detoxify pollutants

biotechnology

use of organisms or their products for the benefit of humans

curd

solidified milk protein

desiccation

removal of water from a material

fermentation

anaerobic breakdown of a substance, such as glucose, that produces a limited amount of ATP for a cell

fermenter

organism that ferments sugars

food fermentation

process of using microbes to break down the carbohydrates in foods

indicator bacterium

nonpathogenic bacterium used to estimate fecal contamination of water

irradiation

act of using radiation to kill microorganisms

leavening

use of the yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae or other materials to make bread rise

malted

allowed to germinate

mash

mixture of sugary crushed grains and water

metabolite

substance that is formed during metabolism or required for metabolic processes

must

fresh-pressed grape juice that contains the grape skin, seeds, and grape solids

pasteurization

process of heating liquids in the absence of oxygen to kill microbes that often make people sick or spoil liquids such as milk

rennin

enzyme from the stomachs of calves used in making cheese

starter culture

small amount of food containing the microbes necessary to carry out the leavening or fermentation process

vaccine

nonpathogenic substance that is used to generate a protective immune response against a particular disease

whey

liquid waste product of the cheese-making process

wort

liquid containing high concentrations of the sugars that will be fermented