Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System Diseases

Vocabulary

animal reservoir

organism in which a pathogen can replicate, often without causing disease, and that serves as a source of infection for humans

apicomplexan

single-celled parasitic protozoan with a specialized set of organelles, vacuoles, and microtubules called the apical complex

bacteremia

presence of bacteria in the blood

bubonic plague

form of plague in which infection by the virulent bacterium Yersinia pestis spreads through the lymphatic vessels and the lymph nodes swell, forming large, colored nodules called buboes

cardiovascular system

system (composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood) that pumps and transports blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen, nutrients, and hormones while removing carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes

causative agent

biological pathogen or chemical toxin that causes a disease

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves (the endocardium), which can disrupt the heart's rhythm and lead to death

lymphatic system

network of specialized tissues, glands (nodes), and vessels that return fluid to the bloodstream while storing and circulating cells and fluids involved in immune responses

plague

infectious disease caused by the bacillus bacterium Yersinia pestis. It has three clinical forms: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic.

pneumonic plague

form of plague in which the lungs are heavily invaded/infected by the virulent bacterium Yersinia pestis

sepsis

condition in which an infection results in a system-wide inflammatory response, which causes severe damage to the tissues and can result in death if not treated immediately

septic shock

severe inflammatory response due to a specific type of sepsis that is stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component that is unique to the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria

septicemic plague

form of plague in which the bloodstream is so severely infected by the virulent bacterium Yersinia pestis that tiny clots form throughout the body, potentially causing death by blocking blood vessels and causing organ failure

systemic infection

infection that spans multiple tissue types

viremia

presence of viruses in the blood