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Classes of Microbes



single cells containing chloroplasts and plant-like cell walls

bacillus (plural, bacilli)

rod-shaped bacterium

binomial nomenclature

two-word naming convention for each type of organism, which includes genus and species name


structure that contains DNA, the genetic material passed from one generation to the next

cilium (plural, cilia)

small, hairlike projection from cells; can be used for motility or sensing the environment

coccus (plural, cocci)

bacterium with a round or spherical shape

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

network of membranes that helps process molecules in a cell and transports cell materials


a toughened, condensed form of cell that can withstand harsh environmental conditions

flagellum (plural, flagella)

thread-like tail that allows some cells to move


extracellular layer of polysaccharides and glycoprotein that coats the cell membrane

Golgi apparatus

organelle that attaches chemical markers to molecules produced in the endoplasmic reticulum in order to transport the molecules to their place inside or outside a cell


organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane

mitochondrion (plural, mitochondria)

organelle that changes energy from food into energy a cell can use


fungal infections causing a wide range of disease in humans


structure in a cell that has a specific task, such as a lysosome, mitochondrion, or Golgi apparatus


substance forming the cell wall of many bacteria made up of glycosaminoglycan (sugar) chains interlinked with short peptides (amino acids)

pilus (plural, pili)

short, hairlike projection found on the surface of some bacteria that helps cells stick together. Longer pili can transfer DNA from cell to cell.

protozoan (plural, protozoa)

unicellular organism containing nuclei and membrane-bound organelles classified into the kingdom Protozoa


spiral, curved, or corkscrew shaped bacteria


haploid reproductive structure of plants, algae, and fungi that divides by mitosis into a multicellular gametophyte. It can travel long distances or remain dormant for a long time.


scientific study of naming and categorizing living organisms based on shared characteristics


comma-shaped bacterium