Disorders in Immunity

Vocabulary

ABO blood grouping

most common characterization of blood based on the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells

allele

version of a gene

allergen

antigen with an environmental origin and capacity to elicit a type I hypersensitivity response with immunoglobulin E (IgE)

allergic rhinitis

type I hypersensitivity response in which plant pollen acts as the allergen

alloimmunity

immune response in which the immune system produces antibodies against antigens from another individual of the same species

anaphylaxis

severe and rapidly developing allergic reaction that may involve eczema, swelling in the face or throat, drops in blood pressure, and digestive upset

atopy

genetic predisposition to developing type I hypersensitivities

autoantibody

antibody that recognizes antigens on cells of the same individual that creates the antibodies

autograft

tissue or organ that is transferred to a new position within the body of the same individual

autoimmunity

immune response that is mounted against the host's own body cells and tissues

eczema

disease characterized by skin swelling and typically involves an itchy, inflamed skin rash

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

lysis of fetal and newborn red blood cells that results from an influx of maternal antibodies into the fetus that target Rh antigens on the surface of the red blood cells

histamine

small, organic, inflammation-mediating molecule that increases blood flow by causing vasodilation and promotes swelling by increasing local capillary permeability

immune complex

molecule formed from the binding of an antibody to an antigen

immunopathology

branch of pathology dealing with the immune system and its response to disease and infection

leukotriene

any of a family of related inflammation-mediating molecules released by phagocytes, basophils, and injured cells to attract neutrophils from the blood to sites of infection

primary immunodeficiency

failure (due to genetic or developmental defects) of the immune system to adequately protect the body from infections and other health problems

prostaglandin

any of a family of pro-inflammatory lipids released by granulocytic leukocytes, which causes pain by promoting vasodilation

Rh factor

one of a group of antigens typically found on red blood cells that yields an Rh-positive blood type. A person lacking Rh antigens on their red blood cells is Rh-negative.

secondary immunodeficiency

failure (due to pathogens, poor nutrition, or immunosuppressive therapies) of the immune system to adequately protect the body from infections and other health problems

serum sickness

type III hypersensitivity reaction forming antigen-antibody complexes with proteins in medicines or antisera, thus causing fever, malaise, hives, itching, joint pain, rash, or lymph node swelling

xenograft

tissue or organ transplant from a donor species that is different from the recipient species