anchor or starting point for DNA polymerase to add free nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA
DNA sequence within a gene sequence that codes for a specific protein. Exons must be combined during mRNA processing.
insertion or deletion of a number of nucleotides that is not divisible by three, resulting in the ribosome reading a "shifted" codon code
protein that binds to and inactivates the repressor in order to permit transcription of the operon genes
DNA sequence within a gene sequence that does not code for a specific protein. Introns must be removed from the mRNA during processing.
molecule made from a DNA template that contains the complementary gene sequence, that is, the sequence opposite to the DNA strand
organic compound consisting of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base; this compound forms the basis of a genetic sequence.
collection of genes that are transcribed together and contain at least two regions of control called a promoter and an operator
observable characteristics of an organism that result from genetic and environmental influences
small, circular piece of bacterial DNA that replicates on its own and can be transferred between cells
change in the genetic sequence that occurs randomly and without external influence
gene that is responsible for the coding of structural proteins, those that serve as structural support within a cell
process that occurs when a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) injects DNA into a bacterial cell
molecule that carries each amino acid to the strand of mRNA during translation of protein synthesis
assembly of amino acids into proteins in the ribosomes through the reading of mRNA by tRNA and the ribosome