Genitourinary System Diseases

Vocabulary

acute

type of disease with sudden onset that is quickly resolved by the immune system

chlamydia

sexually transmitted disease caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis, which infects the upper reproductive system, causing inflammation and production of discharge

chronic

type of disease with consistent symptoms that occur over months or years and will not be cleared without treatment

cystitis

infection of the bladder

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

diagnostic test that uses antibodies to specifically bind to the proteins of pathogens, which are then identified by a color change

epidemiology

science that investigates the cause, transmission, timing, and distribution of infectious disease episodes, with a focus on recognizing outbreaks, controlling those outbreaks, and treating the infected

gonorrhea

sexually transmitted disease caused by a gonococcus, the gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which frequently infects both males and females, but often shows no symptoms in females

herpes simplex virus (HSV)

one of the most common viral causes of genital and oral ulcers, or herpes

leptospirosis

infection of the bladder and kidneys caused by the bacterial genus Leptospira that can cause kidney failure and jaundice

pelvic inflammatory disease

chronic bacterial infection of the upper reproductive tract in females that is responsible for inflammation of the fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

technique for rapidly producing many copies of a section of DNA

prostatitis

condition in which the prostate gland, found only in males, is swollen due to inflammation

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the kidney

reproductive system

part of the genitourinary system that contains the sexual organs that differ between males and females

schistosomiasis

urinary tract infection caused by parasitic flatworms, called schistosomes; contracted when a person drinks contaminated water

urinary tract

part of the genitourinary system that contains the organs that allow humans to eliminate the wastes produced from metabolic reactions and dilute them in water before they are expelled during urination

vaginal discharge

combination of mucus, liquid, bacterial cells, and human cells produced normally by the female reproductive tract, but produced in greater volume during infection

vaginitis

inflammation of the vaginal mucous membranes that can occur during infection

vaginosis

infection in which natural members of the vaginal microbial community overgrow, causing a fishy odor, production of vaginal discharge, and sometimes pain during urination

virulence factor

feature enabling a pathogen to cause disease by releasing toxins, invading host cells and tissues, suppressing the host's immune responses, or otherwise damaging the host