Introduction to Microbiology

Vocabulary

Archaea

domain encompassing unicellular organisms that lack both nuclei and membrane-bound organelles and that do not contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls

aseptic technique

method for sterilizing surgical instruments and laboratory tools

Bacteria

domain encompassing unicellular organisms that lack both nuclei and membrane-bound organelles and that contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls

bacterium (plural, bacteria)

unicellular organism lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles within the domain Bacteria

Eukarya

domain consisting of unicellular and multicellular organisms with nuclei and membrane-bound organelles

fungus (plural, fungi)

unicellular or multicellular organism with nuclei and membrane-bound organelles that produces spores and contains chitin in its cell walls

germ theory of disease

theory that infectious diseases are caused by microbes

Gram stain

method of staining used to differentiate types of bacteria based on cell-wall structure

helminth

large, multicellular, worm-like organism that is visible with the naked eye when fully mature and belonging to the phylum Nematoda or Platyhelminthes

Koch's postulates

four criteria that establish a causal relationship between a microorganism and its disease

microorganism

organism too small to be seen without magnification

pasteurization

process of heating liquids or foods to kill microbes that often make people sick or that spoil liquids such as milk

pathogen

disease-causing organism or virus that causes harm to a host organism

prokaryotic

type of cell that does not possess either nuclei or membrane-bound organelles

protozoan (plural, protozoa)

unicellular organism containing nuclei and membrane-bound organelles classified into the kingdom Protozoa

vaccination

technique of exposing people or animals to a form of a pathogen to develop immunity to it

virus

infectious agent consisting of a nucleic acid strand within a protein coat