Bacterial Nonhemorrhagic Fever
Nonhemorrhagic fever diseases result from bacterial infections and are associated with high fever. In contrast, hemorrhagic fevers occur from contact with animals or other people and can cause problems with the blood’s ability to clot. Some examples of nonhemorrhagic fever diseases are brucellosis, Q fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Brucellosis and Q fever use livestock as animal reservoirs, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever is spread by tick bites.
Brucellosis is caused by various species of bacteria within the genus Brucella. Humans most often acquire this disease by eating unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat. People can also acquire brucellosis if they inhale aerosolized Brucella bacteria. Inhalation exposure is rarer than exposure by ingestion but can occur in certain laboratory or slaughterhouse settings. A third means of exposure occurs when wounds in the skin or the mucous membranes are exposed to Brucella-contaminated items. Flu-like symptoms are paired with extreme muscle pain, night sweats, and a fever.
Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, which naturally infects goats, sheep, and cattle. Humans become infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animals' bodily fluids. Symptoms are flu-like and can be mild or severe. Both brucellosis and Q fever are treatable with doxycycline antibiotics.