Survey of Bacteria

Vocabulary

acidophile

organism that grows in low pH, or acidic, conditions

aerobe

organism that uses oxygen in its metabolic processes

aerogenic

describes an organism that produces gas

aerotolerant anaerobe

organism that thrives in the absence of oxygen but is not harmed by the presence of oxygen

anaerobe

organism that does not use oxygen in its metabolic processes

anaerogenic

describes an organism that does not produce gas

Archaea

domain encompassing unicellular organisms that lack nuclei or membrane bound organelles that do not contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls

autotroph

organism that can make its own food

bacillus (plural, bacilli)

rod-shaped bacterium

Bacteria

domain encompassing unicellular organisms that lack nuclei or membrane bound organelles that contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls

coccus (plural, cocci)

round-shaped bacterium

facultative anaerobe

organism capable of aerobic and anaerobic respiration

genetic homology

comparison of shared genetic material

Gram stain

method of staining used to differentiate between two types of bacteria based on cell wall structure

halophile

microorganism that can tolerate living in high salt concentrations

heterotroph

organism that obtains energy and carbon from consuming other organisms

microaerophile

organism that requires oxygen but can only survive in low-oxygen conditions

numerical taxonomy

grouping of organisms by mathematical analyses comparing shared and unshared traits

obligate aerobe

organism that requires oxygen for survival

obligate anaerobe

organism that dies in the presence of oxygen

phage typing

method of grouping bacteria killed by the same bacteriophage, or bacteria-infecting virus

phylogeny

evolutionary history of groups of organisms

protein profile

a system for scoring the amino acids at each position in a given protein according to the frequency with which they occur

spirillum (plural, spirilla)

spiral-shaped bacterium

spirochete

curved or corkscrew-shaped bacterium

taxonomy

scientific study of naming and categorizing living organisms based on shared characteristics

thermophile

organism that grows best between 50°C and 60°C and can grow at hot temperatures of up to 120°C

vibrio

comma-shaped bacterium

xerophile

microbe that lives in areas with little or no water