molecule or ion remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates its proton to another molecule or ion
three-dimensional shape of a molecule that takes into account bonding and nonbonding electron pairs, as well as molecular rotations to minimize their interactions
molecule or ion rich in electrons that donates a pair of electrons that forms a covalent bond
region in which an electron has a high probability of being located. Orbitals are described by the quantum numbers s, p, d, and f, which differ from one another by their shapes.
method that organic chemists use to deal with organic molecules that have two or more Lewis structures with multiple equivalent representations
acid that completely dissociates and has a pH close to the low end of the spectrum. Strong acids have a large Ka.
base that completely dissociates and has a pH close to the high end of the spectrum. Strong bases have a large Kb.
acid in which only a fraction of the molecules dissociates when dissolved in water, resulting in a low concentration of H+ and a pH closer to the middle of the range
base in which only a fraction of the molecules deprotonates in water, resulting in a low concentration of OH– ions and a pH closer to the middle of the range