Alcohols

Vocabulary

alcohol

hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl functional group

carbonyl

functional group in which a carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen atom

dehydration

removal of water from a compound

Dess-Martin oxidation

oxidation of a primary alcohol to produce an aldehyde or a secondary alcohol to produce a ketone using Dess-Martin periodinane (DMP)

diol

alcohol with one additional hydroxyl group

Grignard reagent

reagent that has the formula RMgX, where the halogen may be $-\rm{Cl}$, ${-}{\rm{Br}}$, or ${-}{\rm {I}}$

hydration

addition of a water molecule as ${-}{\rm {H}}$ and ${-}{\rm{OH}}$ to two adjacent carbon atoms

hydroboration-oxidation

chemical reaction that creates products with an anti-Markovnikov orientation with the hydroxyl group attached to the carbon with the least-substituted carbon

hydrogen bond

weak intermolecular bond between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and a highly electronegative atom (usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen) of a nearby molecule

intermolecular force

attractive or repulsive force between a molecule and a nearby molecule, atom, or ion

organometallic

compound that contains a metal bonded directly to a carbon

organometallic reactions

nucleophilic addition reaction reaction with an organometallic reagent

oxidation

reaction that involves the removal of an electron from an atom

oxymercuration-demercuration

chemical reaction that creates a Markovnikov product through the addition of mercuric acetate (Hg(OAc)2) and water followed by a reducing agent

phenol

benzene ring where a ${\rm {C{-}H}}$ bond is substituted for a hydroxyl group, giving a ${\rm {C{-}OH}}$ unit

protecting group

group used in chemical synthesis to briefly mask the characteristic chemistry of a functional group so it will not interfere with a reaction

pyridinium chlorochromate oxidation

oxidation of a primary alcohol to produce an aldehyde or a secondary alcohol to produce a ketone using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)

reduction

reaction that involves the addition of an electron to an atom

substitution

chemical reaction where one functional group is replaced with another functional group

Swern oxidation

oxidation of a primary alcohol to produce an aldehyde or a secondary alcohol to produce a ketone using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and oxalyl chloride followed by addition of an organic base such as triethylamine