# Aldehydes and Ketones

## Vocabulary

### alcohol

hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl functional group

### aldehyde

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragment and one hydrogen atom, with ${\rm{RC({=}O)H}}$ or ${\rm{R{-}CHO}}$ stoichiometry

### carbonyl

functional group in which a carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom

### demercuration

second step in the hydration of alkenes, where the acetoxymercury group is reduced with sodium borohydride to a hydrogen atom

### Dess-Martin periodinane

aromatic reagent that contains a cyclic ring with a pentavalent (five-bonded) iodine

### electronics

charge or electrical factors that influence an atom or molecule

### keto-enol tautomerism

chemical equilibrium between a ketone or aldehyde and an enol

### ketone

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) bound to two alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragments (which are the same, R and R, or different, R and R′) with ${\rm{RC({=}O)R'}}$ or RCOR′ stoichiometry

### mercurinium

positively charged mercury ion

### oxidation

reaction that involves the removal of an electron from an atom

### oxymercuration

reaction of an alkene with mercury(II) acetate in aqueous THF to form a three-membered mercurinium ion

### ozonolysis

cleavage of an alkene, alkyne, or azo group with ozone

### primary alcohol

alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon that also has two hydrogen atoms attached to it

### reduction

reaction that involves the addition of an electron to an atom

### secondary alcohol

alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon that also has only one hydrogen atom attached to it

### sterics

size, arrangement, and spatial factors that influence an atom or molecule

### Swern oxidation

mild method of converting a primary alcohol into an aldehyde without the use of chromium reagents

### tautomer

one of two or more constitutional isomers that differ only in the placement of a single proton