Vocabulary

addition reaction

reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form products

anti addition

addition of two substituents to opposite sides of a double bond or a triple bond

anti-dihydroxylation

reaction where hydroxyl groups are added on opposite sides of the alkene

carbene

reactive molecule containing a neutral carbon atom with two bonds and an unshared pair of electrons

catalytic hydrogenation

use of a heavy-metal catalyst to add hydrogen to an alkene or alkyne

cis

geometric arrangement in which two substituents are on the same side of the central part of a molecule or ion

E/Z nomenclature

method for naming organic compounds based on where the highest-priority are bonded

halohydrin reaction

anti addition of a halide and hydroxyl group to an alkene

Hofmann's rule

rule that states steric effects have the most considerable influence on outcomes, specifically the loss of a beta hydrogen from the least substituted position

hydration

addition of a hydrogen and hydroxyl group to an alkene

Markovnikov's rule

rule that states that in an addition of an asymmetric reagent to an alkene, the more electronegative atom of the reagent will bond to the more substituted carbon of the alkene

oxidative cleavage

cleavage of a carbon-carbon double or triple bond to form two carbonyl compounds

syn addition

addition of two substituents to the same side of a double bond

syn-dihydroxylation

reaction where hydroxyl groups are added on the same side of the alkene

trans

geometric arrangement in which two substituents are on opposite sides of the central part of a molecule or ion

Zaitsev's rule

rule that states that the alkene formed is more highly substituted because it is more stable