Alkyl Halides

Vocabulary

bimolecular reaction

elementary reaction that occurs between two reactants

electrophile

molecule or ion that accepts electrons to form a covalent bond

elimination reaction

chemical reaction in which the removal of two atoms (usually a hydrogen and a leaving group) forms a pi bond

Hofmann's rule

rule that states that steric effects have the most considerable influence on outcomes, specifically the loss of a beta hydrogen from the least substituted position

initiation step

step in a radical reaction in which a covalent bond breaks and produces two radical species

inversion

change in orientation that occurs during SN2 reactions, when backside displacement of the halogen creates a new molecule with the opposite orientation of the original molecule (an inversion of stereochemistry)

leaving group

functional group that is able to leave a compound and usually forms a stable (weak) species

nucleophile

molecule or ion rich in electrons that donates a pair of electrons that forms a covalent bond

polar aprotic solvent

solvent that contains a polar bond but does not have hydrogen bonding

polar protic solvent

solvent that contains a polar bond that exhibits hydrogen bonding

propagation step

step in a radical chain reaction where a reactive free radical reacts with a stable molecule to form a new free radical

racemic

1:1 mixture of enantiomers

regiochemistry

process that favors bond formation at one atom (or location) over another

solvent

substance that dissolves a material to form a solution

substitution reaction

chemical reaction in which one functional group (leaving group) is replaced with another functional group

termination step

step in a radical reaction where two radicals combine to form a covalent bond and no new radicals are formed

unimolecular reaction

elementary reaction with one reactant

Zaitsev's rule

rule that states that the alkene formed is more highly substituted because it is more stable