# Alkynes

## Vocabulary

reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form products

### alkylation

reaction in which an alkyl group is attached to another molecule, usually in the place of an acidic hydrogen

### alkyne

hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (${\rm {C{\equiv}C}}$) with CnH2n-2 stoichiometry

### alkynide

deprotonated alkyne with the formula ${\rm{MC{\equiv}CR}}$

addition of two substituents to opposite sides of a double bond or a triple bond

### carbon-carbon bond formation reaction

reaction in which a new covalent carbon-carbon bond is formed

### catalytic hydrogenation

use of a heavy-metal catalyst to add hydrogen to an alkene or alkyne

### cis

geometric arrangement in which two identical substituents are on the same side of the central part of a molecule or ion

### dehydrohalogenation reaction

elimination reaction in which a hydrogen and halogen are removed by a base, forming a $\pi$ bond

### deprotonation

reaction that results in a loss of a hydrogen (proton) from an organic molecule

### gem-dihalide

organic compound with two halides bonded to the same carbon

### hydration

addition of a water molecule as ${-}{\rm {H}}$ and ${-}{\rm{OH}}$ to two adjacent carbon atoms

### Markovnikov's rule

rule that states that in an addition of an asymmetric reagent to an alkene, the more-electronegative atom of the reagent bonds to the more-substituted carbon of the alkene

### saturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds and ${\rm {C{-}H}}$ bonds

### stoichiometry

relationship between the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation

addition of two substituents to the same side of a double bond or a triple bond

### synthesis

process of using organic reactions to build a desired molecule with specific skeletal structure, functional groups, and stereochemistry

### terminal alkyne

alkyne with the carbon-carbon triple bond at the end of the chain

### trans

geometric arrangement in which two identical substituents are on opposite sides of the central part of a molecule or ion

### unsaturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains ${\rm {C{-}H}}$ bonds in addition to one or more carbon-carbon ${\rm {C{=}C}}$ or ${\rm {C{\equiv}C}}$ bonds

### vic-dihalide

organic compound with two halides bonded to adjacent carbons