Vocabulary

addition reaction

reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form products

alkylation

reaction in which an alkyl group is attached to another molecule, usually in the place of an acidic hydrogen

alkyne

hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (CC{\rm {C{\equiv}C}} ) with CnH2n-2 stoichiometry

alkynide

deprotonated alkyne with the formula MCCR {\rm{MC{\equiv}CR}}

anti addition

addition of two substituents to opposite sides of a double bond or a triple bond

carbon-carbon bond formation reaction

reaction in which a new covalent carbon-carbon bond is formed

catalytic hydrogenation

use of a heavy-metal catalyst to add hydrogen to an alkene or alkyne

cis

geometric arrangement in which two identical substituents are on the same side of the central part of a molecule or ion

dehydrohalogenation reaction

elimination reaction in which a hydrogen and halogen are removed by a base, forming a π\pi bond

deprotonation

reaction that results in a loss of a hydrogen (proton) from an organic molecule

gem-dihalide

organic compound with two halides bonded to the same carbon

hydration

addition of a water molecule as H{-}{\rm {H}} and OH{-}{\rm{OH}} to two adjacent carbon atoms

Markovnikov's rule

rule that states that in an addition of an asymmetric reagent to an alkene, the more-electronegative atom of the reagent bonds to the more-substituted carbon of the alkene

saturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds and CH {\rm {C{-}H}} bonds

stoichiometry

relationship between the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation

syn addition

addition of two substituents to the same side of a double bond or a triple bond

synthesis

process of using organic reactions to build a desired molecule with specific skeletal structure, functional groups, and stereochemistry

terminal alkyne

alkyne with the carbon-carbon triple bond at the end of the chain

trans

geometric arrangement in which two identical substituents are on opposite sides of the central part of a molecule or ion

unsaturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains CH {\rm {C{-}H}} bonds in addition to one or more carbon-carbon C=C {\rm {C{=}C}} or CC {\rm {C{\equiv}C}} bonds

vic-dihalide

organic compound with two halides bonded to adjacent carbons