# Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives

## Vocabulary

### acid anhydride

organic compound that contains two carbonyl groups (${\rm {C{=} O}}$) bound to the same oxygen atom with (RCO)2O stoichiometry

### acid halide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm {C{=}O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragment and one halogen atom, with ${\rm{RC}({=}O)X}$ or ${\rm R{-}{COX}}$ stoichiometry

### amide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) linked to a nitrogen atom through a ${\rm{C{-}N}}$ bond. It has a general ${\rm{RC({=}O)NRR'}}$ stoichiometry.

### carbonyl group

functional group containing a ${\rm{C{=}O}}$ double bond

### carboxylate

deprotonated carboxylic acid that has a general RCOO stoichiometry

### carboxylic acid

compound that contains an alkyl or aryl group (R) attached to a carboxyl group (${-}{\rm{COOH} }$) that also contains a hydroxyl bound to the same carbon

### conjugate acid

molecule or ion formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base has accepted a proton

### conjugate base

molecule or ion remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates its proton to another molecule or ion

### diacid

molecule containing two acidic functional groups

### electrophile

molecule or ion that accepts electrons to form a covalent bond

### ester

organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it ${\rm {R{-}C({=}O)OR}'}$ or ${\rm{R{-}COOR}'}$ stoichiometry

### nitrile

organic compound that has a carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen with RCN stoichiometry

### nucleophile

molecule or ion rich in electrons that donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond