Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives


acid anhydride

organic compound that contains two carbonyl groups (C=O{\rm {C{=} O}}) bound to the same oxygen atom with (RCO)2O stoichiometry

acid halide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (C=O{\rm {C{=}O}}) bound to one alkyl (R{-}{\rm {R}}) fragment and one halogen atom, with RC(=O)X{\rm{RC}({=}O)X} or RCOX{\rm R{-}{COX}} stoichiometry


organic compound that contains a carbonyl (C=O{\rm{C{=}O}}) linked to a nitrogen atom through a CN {\rm{C{-}N}} bond. It has a general RC(=O)NRR {\rm{RC({=}O)NRR'}} stoichiometry.

carbonyl group

functional group containing a C=O{\rm{C{=}O}} double bond


deprotonated carboxylic acid that has a general RCOO stoichiometry

carboxylic acid

compound that contains an alkyl or aryl group (R) attached to a carboxyl group (COOH{-}{\rm{COOH} }) that also contains a hydroxyl bound to the same carbon

conjugate acid

molecule or ion formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base has accepted a proton

conjugate base

molecule or ion remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates its proton to another molecule or ion


molecule containing two acidic functional groups


molecule or ion that accepts electrons to form a covalent bond


organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it RC(=O)OR{\rm {R{-}C({=}O)OR}'} or RCOOR {\rm{R{-}COOR}'} stoichiometry


organic compound that has a carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen with RCN stoichiometry


molecule or ion rich in electrons that donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond