# Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

## Vocabulary

### acid anhydride

organic compound that contains two carbonyl groups (${\rm {C{=} O}}$) bound to the same oxygen atom with (RCO)2O stoichiometry

### acid halide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm {C{=}O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragment and one halogen atom, with ${\rm{RC({=}O)X}}$ or ${\rm R{-}{COX}}$ stoichiometry

### aldehyde

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragment and one hydrogen atom, with ${\rm{RC{(=}O)H}}$ or ${\rm{R{-}CHO}}$ stoichiometry

### amide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) linked to nitrogen atoms through a ${\rm{C{-}N}}$ bond. It has a general ${\rm{RC ({=}O)NRR}'}$ stoichiometry.

### benzylic carbon

carbon that is adjacent to a benzene ring

### carbonation

reaction that results in the addition of a carbon to a structure

### cyanohydrin

compound that contains a carbon that is bonded to a hydroxyl group (${-}{\rm{OH}}$) and a cyano group (${\rm{C{\equiv}N}}$) on the same carbon

### dehydration

loss of a water molecule

### ester

organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it ${ \rm{R{-}C({=}O)OR}'}$ or ${\rm {R{-}COOR}'}$ stoichiometry

### Grignard reagent

reagent that has the formula ${\rm{R{-}MgX}}$, where the halogen may be ${-}{\rm{Cl}}$, ${-}{\rm{Br}}$, or ${-}{\rm {I}}$

### hydrolysis

addition of water to a molecule to cause a covalent bond to break

### ketone

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm {C{=}O}}$) bound to two alkyl (${-}{\rm {R}}$) fragments (which can be the same, R and R, or different, R and R′) with ${\rm{RC({=}O) R}'}$ or RCOR ′ stoichiometry

### nitrile

organic compound that has a carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen with RCN stoichiometry

### organometallic reaction

nucleophilic addition reaction with an organometallic reagent

### ozonolysis

cleavage of an alkene, alkyne, or azo group with ozone

### primary amide

organic compound that contains a carbonyl (${\rm{C{=}O}}$) linked to a nitrogen atom that has two hydrogen atoms (NH2)

### transesterification

reaction that trades the ${-}{\rm {R}}$ group of the ester with an ${-}{\rm {R}}$ group of an alcohol