Age of Jackson: 1824–1840

Vocabulary

abolition

act of officially stopping something. The abolition movement of the 19th century focused on ending slavery and racial prejudice.

Calvinist

follower of Calvinism—a branch of Protestantism. Calvinists believe God preordains who will be saved and who will be damned.

camp meeting

large, multiday spiritual gathering. Popular during the early 19th century, camp meetings were generally held outdoors or under tents.

Democratic-Republicans

members of the Democratic-Republican Party, which evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican Party in opposition to the policies of the Federalist Party

enfranchisement

granting a right or privilege, particularly in regard to the right to vote

Evangelical

follower of Evangelicalism—a branch of Protestantism. Evangelicals believe humans are capable of choosing to lead a righteous life and determining their own salvation.

free will

power of humans to act independently of social, natural, and religious constraints

Indian Removal Act

law passed in 1830 designating land west of the Mississippi River for American Indian use and promising Indians the protection of the United States government

Jacksonian Democracy

political ideology that champions the equality of the common man and the elite classes

John Marshall

fourth chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall greatly influenced the development of the U.S. system of constitutional law.

Nicholas Biddle

president of the Second Bank of the United States

nullification

the act of canceling something, such as a law

populist

someone who works for the interest of ordinary people

Second Great Awakening

evangelical religious movement of the early 19th century. This era was characterized by outdoor revivals and a push for social reform.

spoils system

practice in which a winning political party replaces current government employees with its own supporters

suffrage

the right to vote

tariff

tax levied on imported and exported goods

temperance

abstinence from drinking alcohol

Trail of Tears

arduous 1,000-mile journey taken in 1838 by the Cherokee from the southeastern United States across the Mississippi River to Indian Territory. About 4,000 individuals died during the trek.

Whig Party

evolution of the National Republican Party and conservative political opponents of the Democratic-Republicans, formed for the 1834 election

Worcester v. Georgia

1832 Supreme Court case that questioned the constitutionality of Georgia's imprisonment of white missionaries who were guests on Cherokee land. The court ruled against the state.