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American Civil War: 1861–1865


Anaconda Plan

military and naval strategy of the Union to encircle the South, block Southern ports, and increase pressure on the South by land and sea

Appomattox Court House

site of Robert E. Lee's surrender to Ulysses S. Grant, which marked the beginning of the end of the Civil War


Confederate strategy to win the Civil War by not losing it. The Confederates planned to drag out the war, making it difficult and expensive for the Union to fight.

Battle of Antietam

September 17, 1862; the bloodiest single day of battle in American history; a Union victory that resulted in more than 20,000 casualties

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1–3, 1863; battle fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that marked the last Confederate foray into the North

Battle of Glorieta Pass

March 28, 1862; battle fought in Glorieta Pass, New Mexico, that marked the last Confederate foray into the West

Battle of Hampton Roads

March 8–9, 1862; first battle fought between ironclad ships in the history of the world


isolation of an enemy area to prevent passage of people or supplies

Emancipation Proclamation

Abraham Lincoln's proclamation that freed all slaves living in Confederate states not yet under Union control

First Battle of Bull Run

first major battle of the Civil War and a victory for the Confederate army

Gettysburg Address

speech given by Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg. It is recognized as one of the most influential speeches in American history.


wooden warship of the period covered with protective iron plates

March to the Sea

devastating march of Union troops led by General William Tecumseh Sherman from Atlanta to Savannah. The goal of the march was to break the spirit of the Southern people.

Robert E. Lee

Confederate general and commander of the Army of Northern Virginia from June 1862 to April 1865

Second Battle of Bull Run

second battle fought at Bull Run, also a Confederate victory

Ulysses S. Grant

Union general responsible for the Vicksburg Campaign and the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House

Vicksburg Campaign

General Ulysses S. Grant's plan to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, and gain control of the Mississippi River and divide the western and eastern Confederate states