American System: 1815–1824


American System

three-part economic plan to boost U.S. industry, commerce, and agriculture. It included protective tariffs on imports, the establishment of a Second Bank, and federal monies to improve internal transportation.


constructed waterway built to enable the passage of boats or ships inland

corrupt bargain

phrase used by Jackson supporters to describe an alleged agreement between Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams to sway the House of Representatives to vote Adams in as president in the 1824 election

Democratic-Republican Party

evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican Party in opposition to the policies of the Federalist Party

electoral vote

Electoral College's vote, which determines the winner of a presidential election

Federalist Party

early political party that advocated a strong federal government

Gibbons v. Ogden

Supreme Court case that affirmed Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce

Henry Clay

statesman, U.S. congressman, and designer and advocate of the American System

implied powers

congressional powers not specifically granted by the Constitution but "implied" or indirectly suggested by the "necessary and proper" clause


basic transportation structures in a country, such as roads, bridges, and canals

interstate commerce

trade, traffic, and transportation between states


foreign policy that avoids involvement in international politics and wars

John Marshall

fourth chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall greatly influenced the development of the U.S. system of constitutional law.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court case that affirmed the constitutional doctrine of Congress's "implied powers" over states. Congress had the powers expressly stated in the Constitution and the authority to carry out those powers.

necessary and proper clause

clause in the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the right to make any laws required to carry out Congress's specific powers listed in the Constitution

popular vote

vote cast by all the voters in a nation or state


tax levied on imported or exported goods

Whig Party

evolution of the National Republican Party and conservative opponents of the Democratic-Republicans, formed for the 1834 election