foreigner living in another country. Many aliens lived in the United States and wanted to become naturalized citizens.
expedition company commissioned by President Jefferson in 1804 to explore the northern half of the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase
official prohibition of the export of goods from the United States to all nations. It was enacted in 1807.
national bank founded in 1791 to collect taxes, print money, and pay the government's bills
fourth chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall greatly influenced the development of the U.S. system of constitutional law.
notion that the Supreme Court determines the constitutionality of the president's executive actions as well as of local, state, and federal laws
area of 828,000 square miles purchased from France and stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canada-U.S. border
William Marbury's lawsuit against James Madison for the right to his commission to serve as a federal judge. The case established the practice of judicial review.
one of the leaders of the expedition sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Lewis was President Jefferson's secretary.
law proposed by Congress in 1806 banning American merchants from importing British manufactured goods
1809 replacement of the Embargo Act allowing the United States to trade with all foreign nations except Britain and France
military conflict between the United States and Britain lasting from June 8, 1812, to February 17, 1815
1794 event during which farmers of southwestern Pennsylvania openly and violently defied the authority of the federal government to tax spirits
one of the leaders of the expedition sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Clark was a lieutenant.
1797 incident in which three Frenchmen, known as X, Y, and Z, demanded loans and a bribe for setting up a meeting between the Americans and France's foreign minister when President Adams sent envoys to Paris to restore friendly relations