one who opposed the U.S. Constitution's ratification because of the belief that the federal government was given too much power
Articles of Confederation
first constitution of the United States. The articles established a central government while granting most of the power of government to the states.
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which ensure individual protections from the government
checks and balances
principle that the different branches of government can stop actions by the other branches under defined conditions
series of essays supporting the strong federal government outlined in the Constitution
plan that proposed a legislature made up of a Senate, in which each state had equal representation, and a House of Representatives, in which representation was proportional in relation to the population of each state
Virginia delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention who eventually became known as the Father of the Constitution. Madison was elected the fourth president of the United States.
branch of the government responsible for making laws and appropriating money to fund the government
New Jersey Plan
plan for government that favored small states by keeping the unicameral legislature formed under the Articles of Confederation and giving each state equal representation
political doctrine that the power of government lies in the hands of the people governed and that a government is legitimate only if it has the consent of the governed
Connecticut delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention. His proposal—the Great Compromise— outlined a proposed structure for the federal government as a bicameral legislature composed of two houses—a Senate and a House of Representatives.
separation of powers
division of the judicial, executive, and legislative functions of government into distinct, independent bodies
Massachusetts uprising in 1786–87 led by American Revolution veteran Daniel Shays to protest high taxes and farm foreclosures
provided that enslaved individuals would be reckoned as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of both representation and taxation
plan for government favoring large states that established a bicameral legislature in which representation in both houses was based on population