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Middle Colonies: 1681–1730



written document that defines the laws and privileges of a state or country and is granted by a sovereign power

Dutch West India Company

Dutch trading company founded in 1621


practice of collecting fruit, nuts, and other edible plants in the wild

James II

king of Britain from 1685 to 1688


group of Native Americans who lived in the Hudson and Delaware river valleys at the time of European colonization

matrilineal society

cultural group in which ancestry is tracked through the generations of women in a family

Native Americans

groups of people indigenous to the North American continent


private investor who was granted land in exchange for transporting at least 50 settlers to a colony where they would work to establish the settlement

Peter Stuyvesant

director general of all Dutch colonial interests in North America and the Caribbean

proprietary colony

colony formed when King Charles II awarded land in North America to an individual, called a proprietor


Christians who are part of a religious group that is unaffiliated with the Catholic Church


members of the religious group called the Society of Friends, who rejected the formal hierarchy of the Anglican Church, instead believing individuals have access to God without clergy or written scripture

religious tolerance

acceptance of the practice of religions other than one's own

William Penn

English Quaker and proprietor of the Pennsylvania Colony