Spanish Colonies: 1492–1763


Acoma Pueblo

site of the first Pueblo rebellion against the Spanish in 1598

Alta California

region that is now California, Nevada, and northern Arizona


soldier who fought in the name of God and the Spanish Crown


process of adopting or embracing a new form of religion


grant by the Spanish crown giving a colonizer the right to demand forced labor and tributes—usually of gold or land—from indigenous peoples


member of a Roman Catholic order who pledged to live in poverty. Franciscans' mission in the New World was to convert indigenous people to the Christian faith.

Juan de Oñate

conquistador who led several hundred settlers into New Mexico, established its first settlement, and became the province's first governor


religious compound dependent on a larger religious organization for support

Pueblo Rebellion

uprising in which the members of many pueblos joined together in a coordinated attack against the Spanish on August 11, 1680

Santa Fe

capital city of New Mexico founded in 1610 by Juan de Oñate