Stirrings of Revolution: 1730–1774


Albany Congress

1754 meeting of delegates from seven colonies to determine how the colonies could best work together during the French and Indian War

Albany Plan of Union

1754 plan by Benjamin Franklin to create a legislative body with representatives from each colony


form of Protestantism; Anglicans belong to the Church of England


building where soldiers live

Coercive Acts

set of four laws enacted by British Parliament as punishment for the Boston Tea Party

Committees of Correspondence

groups appointed by colonial legislative bodies to provide leadership and help the separate colonies work together as necessary


acceptance of religious knowledge acquired through the use of reason. Unlike other religions, deism dismisses the teachings of organized churches.


philosophic period in which logic and reason were emphasized over divine intervention and faith

First Continental Congress

representative body assembled in 1774 to formulate a unified response to the Coercive Acts

Great Awakening

religious revival in the 13 American colonies from the 1720s–40s. It emphasized individual piety and religious devotion, which often clashed with sanctioned church hierarchy.

New Lights

colonists who embraced revival-focused religion

Old Lights

colonists who preferred traditional interpretations of Anglicanism and Puritanism

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763–64 Native American rebellion against European settlers led by Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa

Proclamation of 1763

law establishing all British-owned land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River as Native American territory


informational material written with a bias in favor of or against a specific idea or entity and meant to sway readers' opinions


Christian sect whose leaders sought to strip their religion of all traces of Roman Catholicism which they believed were present in Anglicanism. Colonial Puritans believed in the absolute supremacy of God, salvation through dependence on divine grace, and a duty to provide moral leadership for the colonies.


large, multiday spiritual gathering. Generally held outdoors, revivals were emotional, interactive affairs that emphasized the religious rebirth of an individual from sinner into a devout follower of God.

Roger Williams

religious leader and politician who advocated for freedom of religion and separation of church and state

salutary neglect

unofficial policy practiced by the British toward their American colonies in the 18th century. To instill loyalty, Britain laxly enforced trade regulations and supervision of the colonies' internal affairs.

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

secret organizations dedicated to protesting unfair laws in the colonies


criminal act of plotting against one's government

Treaty of Paris

agreement that ended the French and Indian War in 1763. The Treaty of Paris awarded nearly all of France and Spain's land in North America to the British.