Attention focusing of perception and cognition on something in particular; a
(a) Attention Span:
As children get older, attention span becomes longer.
(b) Selective Attention:
As children get older, they become more selective in what
Damon J Carrier
Exam #2 Study Guide
Writing, using numbers
Problem solving & memory strategies
Vygotsky believed that language shapes thought
incidentally, try to imaging what thought would be like w/o language
A. Some History & Basics
Cognitive Psychology & The Information Processing Approach
As you know, the term cognition refers to any mental activity, including thinking,
problem solving, perception, attention, language, intelligence, creativity, etc.
Encoding specificity simply says that youll remember material best if you match what
you do @ study time w/what youll be asked to do @ test time
These are stimuli in the environment that may aid you in remembering information (even
After a while, Brady would make this same funny toothy grin when he greeted people,
even in his grandpas absence & w/o any prompting.
As you might have guessed, deferred imitation is also an example of Observational
Learning as well as recall (well discus
1. Lets briefly recall what youve already learned about Piaget:
He is a stage theorist who believed in constructivism children actively construct
new understandings of the world based upon their experiences & by being
You are also likely to recognize the existence & importance of a (event) schema if
you think of a time when something unusual or unexpected happened at a
like the first time you ate at a restaurant where they cooked your food AT or ON the
C. Challenges to Piaget
See text p. 191-192
He underestimated the cognitive abilities of infants & young children
when we use more familiar problems & reduce tasks to their essentials,
infants & children tend to perform better
He failed to distinguish
You were probably paying closer attention than he was at the time, but chances are, youll
only remember the gist.
This is a limited resource; not everything that enters the SR can fit through the
bottleneck in the system at this point, so w
1. The Sensory Register
3. Short Term Memory
4. Long Term Memory
The next several slides make specific reference to Atkinson & Shiffrins Model of
Information Processing (the document that you printed before beginning this slide show).
What is disequilibrium?
In either of these previous examples, you experienced disequilibrium when you
encountered something that wasnt part of your prior knowledge or experience;
something novel that challenged your old schemata.
This essentially requir