Explain the properties of carbon that make it the chemical
basis of all life.
Diagram how small molecules may be assembled into larger
ones by dehydration reactions and how hydrolysis reactions
can reverse this process.
1:2:1 ratio C:H:O. Mono +
Outline the phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Nuclear Division and then Cytoplasmic division
G1 - first gap, S - synthesis of DNA, G2 - second gap,*Interphase
then M-mitosis and cytokinesis
G1- Cell growth. Before replication. Cell
Explain the three important parameters in microscopy:
resolution, contrast, and magnification.
Magnification - ratio between size under microscope and actual size.
Resolution - two adjacent objects as distinct.
Contrast - How one structure looks f
Describe the principles of biology. (12) page 3 figure 52.11
1. Cells are the simplest units of life.
1. Cell theory - All organisms are composed of cells, cells
are the smallest units of life and new cells come from
pre-existing cells via cell div
List the four key criteria that the genetic material must fulfill.
Information - sequence of bases
Replication - each strand is a template for the other
Transmission - can be passed from one cell to another during cell
Variation - differe
1. Describe the two general reasons for cell signaling.
Coordinate cellular activities in a multicellular organism.
Respond to changing environment.
Cell to cell communication
2. Compare and contrast the five ways that cells communicate
with each o
Describe the four metabolic pathways that are needed to break
down glucose to CO2.
Cellular respiration - release of energy from glucose to make ATP
Need oxygen to make ATP.
Glycolysis - cytosol in the cell
Breakdown of Pyruvate- starts in cytosol
List the different ways that mutations can alter the amino acid
sequence of a polypeptide.
Mutation is a heritable change in the genetic material. Essential for life.
New mutations are more likely to be harmful than beneficial. DNA
Discuss the various ways that organisms benefit from gene
Turning genes on or off - Transcription. Also can be involved in
translation as well.
Certain times and specific amounts.
Benefits: Conserve energy, Expression in appropriate c
Analyze the results of the experiments of Garrod and of Beadle
Gene expression - DNA is turned on and making a product.
Trait level - blue eyed gene
What occurs at molecule will affect the trait level.
Garrod (1908) - Alkaptonuria - Th
Define energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic
The ability to do work. The ability to rearrange a collection of matter.
Kinetic - the energy of motion. Baseball flying through air
Potential - Stored energy.
Catabolic breaks do