Week 13 part B
8. B- oxidation to gluconeogenesis
10. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the liver by glucagon. (1) Glucagon binding to its receptor
leads to activation of adenylate cyclase, which leads to an increase in cAMP levels. (2) cAMP
binds to the re
Basic Enzyme React
Enzyme binds substrate E+S ES
Conversion/Release EP E+P
Km: reflection of the affinity of an enzyme for a substrate
- Small Km high aff
1.Define restriction enzyme and describe their utility in recombinant technology.
A restriction enzyme is an endonuclease that specifi-cally recognizes a short sequence of DNA,
usually 4 to 6 base pairs (bp) in length, and cleaves a phosphodiest
Week 2 Chapter 10 and 11
After reviewing the topics in this week, the learner will be able to explain how cells
communicate and integrate signals resulting in a cellular or physiological change.
Compare the location and structure of DNA between pro and eukaryotes.
1. DNA not separated from rest of cell contents
1. DNA in nuclear envelope
2. Bound to proteins
1. Forms chromatin
Describe DNA superstructure and how
Describe the 6 major enzyme classifications and the basic type of reaction catalyzed,
including: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases
1. Ox-red reactions catalyzed by these
2. At least one substrat
Describe the pathway of fatty acid synthesis; specifically the role
of Acetyl CoA carboxylase (See figure 33.9) and fatty acid synthase
Conversion of glucose to cytosolic acetyl CoA
1. Glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate in cytosol
2. Pyruvate ent
Identify the major monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides found in the
human body and diet; give examples
1. Glucose and galactose
Describe the importance of water in biological systems and summarize the
characteristics of the molecule
Bathes cells, dissolves and tramsports compounds in the blood, medium for
movement, separates charged molecules, dissipates heat, participates in
Outline the digestion and absorption of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides. (Figure
Dietary triacylglycerols in the mouth and stomach are broken down by lingual
and gastric lipase
Bile salts from gallbladder come into small intestine to emuls
Describe the major organelles in eukaryotes and their respective cellular functions.
1. Lipid bilayer, embedded proteins
2. Hydrophobic core
4. Most proteins on this contain covalently bound carb chains
1. This layer is the g
Define and briefly explain the role of entropy, and enthalpy in biochemical reactions
Enthalpy (H) is the change in chemical bond energy in a reaction (bond energy
of products minus the bond energy of reactants)
1. Also called HEAT CONTENT
Describe the process of gene transcription.
Genes are transcribed from RNA polymerases
Generate single strand RNA identical in sequence with DNA parent strand
RNA strand thats initially generated is the primary transcript
DNA template copied in 3-5
Describe the overall purpose of the two phases of the Pentose Phosphate pathway:
oxidative and non-oxidative.
1. NADPH production
1. First phase glucose 6-P oxidated and decaroxylated to ribulose 5-P
2. Glucose 6-P dehydrogenase oxidizes it
1. Define polycistronic.
Describing a type of messenger RNA that can encode more than one polypeptide
separately within the same RNA molecule. Bacterial messenger RNA is
2. Compare differences between inducible and repressible oper
1. Describe the overall purpose of gluconeogenesis including its cellular localization, and its
Process in which glucose is synthesized from noncarbohydrate precursors,
occurring mainly in the liver under fasting conditions
1. Describe the transport of dietary cholesterol by chylomicrons
Synthesized from dietary lipids
Contain apoB48, apoCII, apoE
apoCII activates LPL which hydrolyzes chylomicrons leading to release of fatty
1. LPL extends into capillaries of muscle an
1. Identify ketogenic vs glucogenic amino acids based on their intermediary metabolite.
1. Broken down into acetyl-CoA
2. Only two purely ketogenic are lysine and leucine
1. Broken down into pyruvate, a-ketoglutarate, succinyl CoA, fu
Summarize the process of DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle (Figure 13.7)
Nucleosomes disassemble as replication forks advance
Synthesis of histones and other proteins throughout this phase
List the fates of glucose, amino acids and fats after a meal
1. Liver is first organ glucose passes through when it leaves intestines via
hepatic portal vein
2. Liver extracts portion
3. Some enters hepatocytes and is oxidized in ATP-genera
Define restriction enzyme and describe their utility in recombinant technology.
An endonuclease that specifically recognizes a short sequence of DNA, cleaves
the phosphodiester bond in both DNA strands within the sequence
Cleaves only that particular
Describe the overall purpose of the TCA cycle, its cellular localization, and tissue
1. Oxidizing acetyl CoA which produces reduced coenzymes which can be
oxidized in the ETC to produce ATP energy
1. Localized w
Dinitrophenol is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain. The addition of
dinitrophenol will have which of the following impacts?
Increase oxygen consumption
Increase oxygen consumption
DNP is an u
Separation of DNA by electrophoresis allows DNA to segregate based on
molecular weight and charge. Based on this, how would a fragment of DNA that
is 500 base pairs in length migrate on a gel when compared to a fragment that is
1000 base pairs in length?
Which step in the citric acid cycle is a rearrangement reaction?
Citrate to isocitrate
Citrate to isocitrate
Citrate to isocitrate is an isomerization reaction. Review week 1
Peptide hormones bind cytoplasmic receptors as a means of
transducing signals across the plasm
What is the [OH] concentration in a 0.001 M = 10-3 M solution of HCl.
(10-14 = [H+] [OH-])
Page 44. Section II
Calculate the [OH] OR [H+] concentration if given the
rRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase I. The primary utility of rRNA
within the cell is best described as which of the following?
It is directly used for translation
It is an integral part of a functional ribosome
Immediately after a meal (insulin is high), in glucose 6-phosphate (or its oxidation
products) will be utilized by all of the following pathways except:
Aldolase B facilitaes a reaction that cleaves fructose 1-phosphate into
dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and what other glycolytic intermediate?