Chapter 1: Atoms and Elements Building Blocks of Chemistry (Lecture Outline) -I. Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences A. Chemistry is a science that studies the composition and properties of matter B. Matter i
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Double displacement/double replacement/metathesis reactions o In general, we are going to swap ions in solution. AX + BY AY + BX o Precipitation reactions and acid-base (neutralization) reactions o Looking for the formation
Molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
V = nRT/P
One mole of anything occupies the same
volume at the same temperature and
pressure. What is that volume?
A) 22.4 mL
B) 22.4 L
C) 1 L
Pretend youre doing the very first experiment to determine
Synthesis of Potassium Alum
Aluminum 3rd most abundant element in
earths crust. Two million tons/y produced
in US (30 kg/person)
Stuff you will make:
margarine from olive oil
azo dye and triphenylmethyl dye
1. What anion precipitates in the presence of
2. What is the color of (NH4 )3PO4(MoO3)12?
A) white B) yellow C) black D) brown
3. Which solid precipitate evolves CO2 gas when
treated with HNO3 ?
A) CaCO3 B) AgCl
1. What is the hydrolysis Kh (or basicity Kb)
constant of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4? The
acid dissociation constant Ka of bisulfate,
4 , is 1.2 10 .
A) 1.2 102
B) 5.6 1010
C) 8.3 1013
D) 1.0 1014
E) none of the above
2. At a certain point in th
1. Which is the least soluble?
A) AgCl B) AgI C) Ag2S
2. Which of the following is not a buffer?
A) 0.5 M NH4 Cl/0.5 M NH3
B) 0.5 M NaCl/1.0 M HCl
C) 0.5 M formic acid, HCO2H/
0.5 M sodium formate, NaHCO2
D) 0.2 M NaOH/0.5 M acetic acid, CH3COOH
1. Consider the equilibrium.
[CoCl4]2 + 6H2O
4Cl + [Co(H2O)6]2+
Adding HCl will shift the equilibrium
A) towards products. B) towards reactants.
2. Consider the equilibrium.
Adding heat will shift the equilibrium
A) towards produ
Rate Law and Ea
Theory and Background
Thermodynamic parameters determine spontaneity (eventually).
But thermodynamics ignores time.
We need to know kinetics.
Reaction rates are measured as the change in
concentration of reactants and products with
Chapter 11: Properties of Gases (Lecture Outline) -I. Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level A. All substances have three phasessolid, liquid, and gas B. Liquid/solid substances under ordinary condi
Chapter 2: Compounds and Chemical Reactions (Lecture Outline) - Elements combine to form compounds in two ways. o Sharing of electrons between atoms Produces discrete, electrically neutral particles called molecules Molecular co
Chapter 3: Measurement (Lecture Outline) -I. Measurements are quantitative observations A. Observations can be qualitative or quantitative: 1. Qualitative observations are non-numerical; they ask "what" 2. Quantitative observati
Chapter 4: The Mole Connecting the Macroscopic and Molecular Worlds (Lecture Outline) - The essential link between the small-scale world of atoms and molecules and large-scale mass measurements is the mole. Part of chemistry tha
Chapter 5: Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions (Lecture Outline) -I. Special terminology applies to solutions A. Solution homogeneous mixture in which two or more components mix freely B. Solvent component present in the
Chapter 6: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (Lecture Outline) -I. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer A. Reactions that involve transfer of electrons called oxidation-reduction/redox reactions i. Oxidation is th
Chapter 8: The Quantum Mechanical Atom (Lecture Outline) -I. Electromagnetic radiation can be described as a wave or a stream of photons A. Energy can be transferred between things as light or radiation B. Radiation carries ener
Chapter 9: Chemical BondingGeneral Concepts (Lecture Outline) -I. Electron transfer leads to formation of ionic compounds A. Ionic compounds form when metals and nonmetals react i. The attraction between positive and negative io
Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Lecture Outline) -I. Molecular shapes are built from five basic arrangements umber of bonds (Bonding Domains) 2 3 2 umber of Lone Pairs ( onbonding Domains) 0 0 1 umber of Ch
Theory and Background
Reactions happen because molecules
at high chemical potential energy go
to lower chemical potential energy.
Energy difference released as heat enthalpy.
For exothermic reactions . . . symbolized
sometimes heat is