Throughout the last couple of week of attending our anthropology course I have learned a few
different theories, although each theory is absolutely interesting there was one that caught my
What Is Anatomy and Physiology?
- water intake: 60% fluids; 30% water in foods; 10% from metabolism (metabolic
water or water of oxidation)
- water output: 60% excreted in urine; 28% vaporizes out of lungs of is lost by
diffusion through skin (insensible water loss); 8% l
Veterans Treatment Courts
Veteran's Treatment Courts (VTCs) are a growing therapeutic jurisprudence trend in the United
States within the Criminal Justice System (CJS). These new judicial approaches are challenging
the traditional roles of Judges, Courts,
veins Thin-walled vessels that carry blood to the heart. Units of the circulatory
system that carry blood to the heart.
ventilation The mechanics of breathing in and out through the use of the diaphragm
and muscles in the wall of the thoracic cavity.
This article explores the vasculitides, what they are and how to deal with them.
Vasculitides: what are they?
A group of diseases which affect the blood vessel wall causing inflammation. Giant cells in the media
release lytic com
Vasculitides Types of primary vasculitides
This table below gives an overview of the vasculitides classifying them by the size of vessel affected.
Size of Vessel
Small to large
Vaginal discharge refers to secretions from the vagina.
All women of child bearing age have some vaginal discharge between periods. The amount varies during
the menstrual cycle and between individuals. Normal discharge is white
Vaginal discharge Treatment
Treatment is dependent on the cause of the discharge. Changing to a different brand of contraceptive pill
or the removal of an IUCD may lessen vaginal discharge in some women, while lubricating creams and
hormone therapy may he
Vaginal discharge Epidemiology
Vaginal discharge is common, 1 in 10 women seeing their GP mention the symptoms and almost 1 in 5
attend attending a gynaecological clinic have an abnormal vaginal discharge of a type that indicates
vaccination The process of protecting against infectious disease by introducing into
the body a vaccine that stimulates a primary immune response and the production of
memory cells against the disease-causing agent.
vaccine A preparation containing dead o
Uterus: hollow, thick-walled organ in pelvis that receives, retains & nourishes a
o consists of fundus, body & cervix from superior to inferior
o cervix (neck) projects into vagina
cervical canal communicates with vagina via external os &
Uterine prolapse is the loss of anatomical support for the uterus where it has descended farther
down into the vagina. It falls under the term of pelvic organ prolapse:
cystocele (bladder prolapse),
rectocele (prolapse of the rectum o
Uterine fibroids are benign tumours of the uterus that are primarily smooth muscle and connective tissue
(leiomyoma). They are usually round, firm, and well-circumscribed nodules.
Most patients are asymptomatic
Urinary symptoms d
Uterine Fibroids Epidemiology
About 2040% of women will be diagnosed with leiomyoma but only a fraction of those will cause
problems or require treatment.
The condition is about twice as common in black women as white women.
Leiomyoma are more common in o
Urinary System and Fluid Balance
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The
urinary system eliminates wastes, controls blood volume, regulates blood ion
concentration and pH, and regulates red blood cell product
Upper Limb (Arm) Bones
- humerus (2): longest & largest bone of arm; articulates proximally with scapula &
distally with ulna & radius
o head: rounded superior portion; articulates laterally with glenoid cavity of scapula
to form glenohumeral joint
Types of Membrane Proteins:
Channel Proteins: create transient hydrophilic channel for small molecules & ions to
Carrier Proteins: selectively interact with small molecules or ions to assist them across the
Cell Recognition Protein: Cell Ident
tympanic membrane (eardrum): boundary between outer & middle ear
vibrates with frequency of sound waves entering through external ear; transfers
vibration to ossicles of middle ear
- middle ear (tympanic cavity): small air-filled cavity within temporal bo
Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood:
Oxygen Transport: since oxygen is poorly soluble in water, most (> 98%) of oxygen
transported by blood is bound to hemoglobin
- association & disassociation of oxygen with hemoglobin: hemoglobin with bound
Translation: mature mRNA is translated to protein in the cytoplasm
- translation occurs at the ribosomes
- many ribosomes may synthesize protein from the same mRNA molecule at the same
- tRNA molecules carry amino acids to the ribosom
Transfusion reactions: agglutination & hemolysis
- following infusion of mismatched blood, agglutination occurs as antibodies complex
with the foreign blood group antigens
- this blocks blood vessels & hinders blood flow; reduces oxygen availability to ti
tooth & gum disease
o dental caries (cavities): result from demineralization of enamel by bacteria in
o gingivitis: inflammation of gingival caused by dental plaque & tartar
o periodontitis (periodontal disease): bacteria invade
Tissues: The Living Fabric
Cell-Cell Junctions & Communication:
- Adhesion junctions (desmosomes): cytoplasmic plaques within two cells are joined by
- Tight junctions: plasma membrane proteins of two adjacent cells attach, produci
Tissues, Glands, and Membranes
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function, as well as the extracellular
substances located between the cells.
Histology is the study of tissues.
Epithelial tissue covers surfaces, us