ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
Why do we not see Economic Prosperity Everywhere?
Classical Liberals (Adam Smith/Locke)
o Invisible hand of the market, let natural forces work out the problems of
o Few scholars today believe that
o The Paradox of modern democracy
o West won the cold war so liberal democracy should dominate
o Democracy has many frustrations
o Notion that there is disproportionate power
o Bias in favor of the rich
o Critics no longer come from
WHY DO FEDERAL SYSTEMS EMERGE OR COLLAPSE?
Modern world is even more complicated than before
Democracy comes in many shapes and forms
Some things are going on with the state
One type of state that is particularly important: federal state,
WHY DO DIFFERENT COUNTRIES HAVE SUCH DIFFERENT SOCIAL
Societal and political organizations
Social policies are different in different countries: WHY?
Easy answer: different patterns of public expenditures; governments spending les
WHY DO WE NOT SEE DEMOCRACY EVERYWHERE?
Does economic development cause democracy?
o Changes the social conditions of the working class
o Lerner is wrong: not about education and urbanization
o Real reason: higher income for workers allow the
How do people use the word modern?
Modernity vs. tradition
o Machiavelli (View 1)
! World view, pre-modern worldview
! Critic of the church
! Proposed a new vision of modern thinking
! Modern was to say that you could go against th
o Fairy tale story
o Trade and barter to make more people better off
o Evolved in hiring people for direct wages
o Division of labor
o Industrialization was a violent process
o Power relations in the market
o A political world cause
WHY DO PEOPLE MOBILIZE FOR CHANGE OR NOT?
Collective action and its forms can change everything but its rare
Sporadic outbursts of mobilization
Marx and Engels
o Engineered proletariat revolution
o Class based common interests
o Class basis
o Why has the state become so important in modern politics?
o We arguably take government/state for granted, the state means the government
o Contending perspectives: contract between citizens and rulers
o Taxes exchanged for public
WHY DO POLITICAL PARTIES DIFFER SO MUCH ACROSS TIME AND
Partisanship creates an arena where parties compete
Political life has always been organized like this
French Convention: left and right organizers
Partisanship is often reject
o Why has the nation become such an important dimension of peoples identity?
o Very connected to the state
o Identities are not physical but they are important
o Valued by different people, significant component of identity, can be