Phylogeny: evolutionary history of relationships among organisms
or their genes.
Phylogeny portrayed in a diagram called phylogenetic tree
Lineage: series of ancestor and descendant populations, shown as
a line drawn on a time axis.
Summer Assignment Instructions
1. As you complete your summer assignment, you will understand the organization and level of
detailed information of the AP Biology textbook, Biology, 5th ed. by Campbell, Reece and
Mitchell. This is the edition t
Population Dynamics of the Kaibab Deer
to graph data concerning the deer population of the Kaibab Plateau from 1905 to 1939
to determine the carrying capacity of the Kaibab Plateau before 1905 and after 1930
to determine the factors responsibl
Chapter 3: Properties of Water
Purpose: to understand the properties of water (the
reasons why water is necessary and makes it possible
for life on Earth), pH, and the role of buffers.
What you MUST know from Ch 3:
Properties of water
Speciation: process of making new species of natural
consequences of making more branches on trees.
Not so clear whats a species and whats not and when did it
o What criteria can we use to define a species?
Types of Speciation
Allopatric speciation: occurs when populations are separated by
a physical barrier (geographic speciation). Thought to be the
dominant mode of speciation in most groups.
o Meer fact of just being separated by geography is not
o 1. Select a group of organisms to classify (the ingroup) and
an appropriate outgroup
o 2. Choose the characters that will be used in the analysis and
identify the possible forms (traits) for the character.
o 3. Determin
History of Life on Earth
To understand our evolutionary history, we cant limit ourselves to
human. Much of history of Earth is impregnated in rocks and trees
o Tree-ring dating
o Way scientists date ancient events.
o Allows scientists t
Populations evolve over time.
Evolutionary Theory is scientific body of work concerned with
studying the mechanisms that cause evolutionary change in
Much of what we know about disease involves evolution.
Origins of Evo
Number of fossil species that have been found are only a tiny
fraction of the species that have ever lived
Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago (Precambrian)
Life on earth originated 3.5 billion years ago (Precambrian)
Photosynthesis originated 2.5
Not all photosynthetic organisms are green
Cyanobacteria are blue.
synthesis from light
plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release water and O2.
Light is required.
Photosynthesis is a redox process
Light reactions: convert light
CO2 fixation: CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates.
Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2.
Production of ATP and NADPH is light-dependent; therefore CO2 fixation
must also take place in the light.
There is only o
Ch. 22 Fungi
o Evolutionary context
Heterotrophic organisms with absorptive nutrition and with chitin in
their cell walls
o Saprobes (detritivores, recylcers) absorb nutrients from dead
Ch. 24 The Plant Body (Morphology)
Plants must harvest energy from sunlight and mineral nutrients from the
soil. They also need water. Also need carbon dioxides and oxygen. Plants
are photoautotrophs so they need energy from light.
NAA + NAa + Naa = N
Even when it is halved, it is the same. Other factors are important.
Allele frequencies measure the amount of genetic variation in a
population, whereas genotype frequencies show how such variation
is distributed amon
Chapter 49: Sensory & Motor
Purposeto understand the types of sensory receptors,
and the components of the musculoskeletal system
What you MUST know in Ch 49:
Types of sensory receptors
Overview of ear structure
Structure of the eye
Sensory transduction i
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Purpose: to understand the importance of the versatility
of carbon, as THE important molecular building block
in making the diversity of life (molecular and higher
What you MUST know
Chapter 6: Metabolism
Purpose: to understand that metabolic pathways involve
energy transformation, and how enzymes work (AP Bio
Major Themes 3: Energy Transfer, 5: Structure and
Function, 6: Regulation).
What you MUST know from Chapter 6:
Anabolic vs. ca
So many moleculesso little time! In college, if you take organic chemistry, you will
be compelled to buy or borrow a little plastic molecule set, which youll use to help
you to remember the zillion molecules you must know. Fortunat
Chapter 7: The Cell
Purpose: to understand the major different types of cells
and the function of cell organelles and structures (AP
Major Theme V: structure and function). While most
of this chapter may be review for you, there are some
details that will
Chapter 8: Membrane Structure & Function
Purpose: to understand plasma membrane structure and
function and movement of substances across
membranes (AP Bio Major Theme: V; I: Science as a
processin regards to the historical development of
the fluid mosaic
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration
Purpose: to understand the process of cellular respiration,
including glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and
What you MUST know from Ch 9:
Oxidation vs. reduction
Electron transport chain
Chapter 11Cell Communication
Purposeto understand how cells respond to signals and
regulate cellular activities and processes which are
needed for the survival of the organism. (AP Major
Themes VStructure & Function, VIRegulation)
What you MUST know in Ch
L ab #7: Genetics of Organisms
Use your Lab Manual and Lab Bench as resources for the lab.
http: / / w w w.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab7 / intro.html
You may also use other resources, but you must list them on a reference list at the
Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle & Mitosis
Purpose: to understand the cell cycle, cell division, and to
realize that mitosis is just a small part of the cells life
cycle. Know the stages of mitosis. Understand h
Purpose: to understand the process of meiosis, that it creates
haploid gametes and is responsible for genetic variation,
and to know the differences between meiosis and mitosis
(AP Bio Major Themes: IVContinuity & Change)
What you MUST k
Ch. 21 Evolution of Plants
Evolution of chloroplasts (and mitochondria) were essential for plants
to move onto land.
Primary endosymbiosis is a shared derived trait (synapomorphy) of
The first clades to branch off after primary endosymbiosi
Chapter 20: The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA because unlike
most organelles, they contain DNA that was once part of a symbiotic
Protist: any Eukaryote that is not a plant, ani
We see the world in rich color, but most mammals do not. Even our early primate ancestors were red-green colorblind.
Like most vertebrates, our ability to detect color begins with cone cells
Gaseous signaling molecules
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Gasotransmitter)
Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally
(endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by
Nutrition, Feeding, and
Learning Objectives for Chapter 30 (Nutrition, Feeding & Digestion)
You should be able to:
Compare & contrast relative energy contents of carbohydrates, fats and proteins,
and describe how energy content is measured.
The Evolution of Plants
You should be able to:
Explain what charophytes are, and know their relationship to land plants.
Recognize key adaptations of land plants, both vascular and non-vascular,
that were important in allowing them
The Plant Body
Why are plants important to humans?
Chapter 24 Learning Objectives
You should be able to:
Know what makes a plant cell unique.
Describe how a plant body is organized (root, shoot,
stem, leaf, flower, fruit)
Describe the structure and fun
Fundamentals of Animal Function
Chapter 29 Fundamentals of Animal Function
29.1 Animals Eat to Obtain Energy and Chemical Building Blocks
29.2 An Animals Energy Needs Depend on Physical Activity and
29.3 Metabolic Rates Are Affec