So instead he decides to examine the foundation of almost all of his beliefs. If there is a
reason to doubt the foundation then we can doubt any belief based on that foundation
Almost everything you believe comes from your senses
What is the foundati
Nagel the Absurd
What difference will it make 100 years from now?
This highlights something that only we are capable of doing
We have the ability to step outside of what we are doing
and evaluate our actions
Socrates would ask questions that re
What about sound?
Sound is not in the object. Sound first is in the air and then it travels into our cars
and becomes the sound we perceive.
P: Do we ever immediately perceive the sound as it travels through the air? Of
course not-all we know of is t
Descartes has shown why we should not trust any beliefs based on the senses.
What about beliefs not based on the senses? Beliefs about math and geometry?
God could, if she wanted to make 2+2=5.
God, though loves us and so would not want to trick us
Principle of charity- always make your opponent look the best they can, so that when the
time comes you can finish them
S: So what are the new gods if they are not gods and they are not humans? They can only
be something like fairies or spirits. And what
This paper is about personal identity. I think this is an interesting topic because we often
struggle about the means of how we identify ourselves, whether it is our physical body, our
memories and experiences, or our soul. It is an impor
The old charge against me(rumor)
is that Socrates defeats the stronger arguments with weaker arguments
Carriey adores Socrates and believes he is better than everyone
so goes to see the Oracle at Delphi for confirmation of his belief
Q: Is anyone w
Meditations on a First Philosophy
Philosopher, scientist, mathematician, and
Studied at Jesuit college of La Flche
Served as soldier (mercenary) for Prince of
Principle of Charity
Ex. Principle of Charity
Butch: I frankly don't understand why we have to pay
taxes to support freeloaders. I bust my hump for my
measly paycheck, and I don't appreciate having to hand a
chunk of it over
The Problem of Free Will
What is free will?
Problem of Free Will
1. People are capable of acting freely
2. Determinism is true ("human behavior is
entirely governed by causal laws")
3. Acting freely and being causally determined
How can w
Descartes 6th Meditation
Cartesian Mind/Body Dualism
Separation of the mind and body into different
Mind/Soul is composed of Res Cognita or
Body (and physical world) is composed of Res
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves
systematizing, defending, and recommending
concepts of right and wrong.
Categories of ethics
Metaethics: What does it mean to say that
From deon, meaning duty
1724 1804 CE
Studied and taught at Konigsberg
Central to modern philosophy
Inspired by Hume
Resolved dispute between
rationalism and empiricism
The Good Will
Are these two descriptions of the same object or two descriptions of a different object?
Descartes says we think it is the same object, but why?
The descriptions have little in common, so why think they are the same
Berkely- an idealist
They agree to restrict their discussion to only what is immediately sensible
Which are truly in the world?
Immediately sensible objects or Mediately sensible objects(science)
What about heat then?
Do you believe that heat truly exists in the world or
1. Problem of Evil: the idea that if God is all-knowing, all-powerful, and all-good then evil-or at the
very least suffering, should not exist.
i. Evil for the greater good human cannot achieve true potential without evil or
1. What is Euthypros dilemma? Describe the potential problems with each position.
1st horn: The gods love things that are pious. (Moral realism)
i. Advantage: we can uncover what things are good using reason
o Dont need gods to determin
1. Utilitarianism: A consequentialist ethic that measures consequences by considering their overall
contribution to overall happiness and suffering. Happiness principle: greatest happiness for the
i. Utilitarianism makes it
Socrates: Rest of Athens?
Socrates: So only I corrupt? Everyone else benefits the youth?
Socrates: That is dopewacky
Socrates is trying to
The Ontological Argument
Onto- Concerned about the nature of being,
becoming, existence, or reality
-ology: Well, you know
Saint Anselm of Canterbury
c.1033 21 April 1109 C.E.
Anselms Ontological Argument
Now we believe that you a