LIBYA AND THE ITALIAN COLONIZERS
Italy seized Libya after a brief war with the Ottomans (1912).
Libyans resisted. Fighting broke out, but the British brokered a truce
after Italy joined the Allies in World War I (1915).
After the War, fighting broke out a
HIJAB IN EGYPT
Activist Huda Shaarawi famously removed her face veil in Cairo in
Egyptian women of the middle and upper classes came to adopt
Western modes of dress.
Even by late 60s, it was very rare to see veiled women in Egypt,
People tend to strengthen traditional values when they feel that their
culture, especially their system of moral values, is under attack.
Dekmejian (1988) writes:
A sense of xenophobia pervades Muslim society, the feeling that
Based on events of Algerian War of independence (1954-1962) against
Banned for 5 years in France.
ETHNICITY AS DEFINER OF NATION
A powerful case for nationhood can be mounted when there is a
common ethnicity at stake.
In 1947, one could make the s
ARAB NATIONHOOD: FOUNDATIONS?
Arab nationhood is based on what they have in common:
Collective memory of their place and role in history.
People became Syrian, Lebanese, Iraqi,
Contesting traditional institutions of power (patriarchies, tribalism,
Disagree with regimes highly political alliances/stances (ex. Egypt,
Jordan, Saudi Arabia)
Dont yet trust secular institutions.
Caught between globalizing world and tr
Nationalism considers a people of a common background (race,
ethnic, linguistic, religious, etc.) living together within particular
geographical boundaries, with a common historical background,
language, culture and traditions as a fundamental
NATIONHOOD AND DEVELOPMENT
WHAT IS A NATION-STATE?
Nation states = relatively recent creation
Most of human history has focused on communities which are much
smaller (the village or city state) or much larger (the empire).
Nearly 200 nation states exists
WHO ARE THE ARABS?
Arab League Definition: An Arab is a person whose language is Arabic,
who lives in an Arabic-speaking country, and who is in sympathy with the
aspirations of the Arabic-speaking peoples
THE TERM ARAB IS/IS NOT
IS mainly a cultural/lingu
1988 Independence declared by PLO.
Gained UN recognition as non-member observer state in 2012.
State? Why? Why not? Consider language, culture, religion, borders,
agreements, UN legal status, etc.
Jordan, Palestine, and some G.C.C. states more homogenous.