LIPIDS Definition Lipids are the substances in foods that are soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. This category includes triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, some pigments, some vitamins and cholesterol.
When a lipid is solid at room temp
UNIT 3: FOOD MICROBIOLOGY & FOODBORNE ILLNESS
The U.S. food supply is among the safest in the world. Yet, by federal government estimates,
about 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur annually or about 1 in 6 Americans. Most
foodborne illnesses are a
3. Example: sticky pasta or rice a. another problem with amylose (1) sticky rice= higher amylose b. may also relate to overall starch content (1) high quality pasta= durham wheat (2) high in protein (a) protein holds gelatinized starch granules together V
B. Vegetables: formal- all edible parts of plants, excluding the mature ovaries consumer- edible plant tissues which don't taste tart/sweet
Confusion: a number of "vegetables" are fruits tomatoes cucumbers squash green peppers avacados seed crops (
Veri-green = zinc + pheophytin = bright green
c. Processing/cooking procedures must preserve the desirable colors present in ripe fruits and vegetables.
2. Texture a. Hard-firm, plump-soft, mushy b. Two reasons:
1. Principle: Fruits/Veg. are alive, they "respire" Utilize oxygen, release carbon dioxide (a) Can decrease respiration by removing oxygen from environment (replace with carbon dioxide) 2. Fruit placed in "suspended animation" a. 1-3 years depending on ty
3. hemicelluloses = various sugar polymers carageenan agar
B. Definitions: fiber = indigestible materials 1. Insoluble in water = structural fibers
a. cellulose b. hemicellulose c. lignin 2. Soluble in water (may
D. Temperature - too hot or too cold E. Moisture- gain or loss F. Air- oxygen G. Light- esp. ultraviolet
H. Time - most critical Food deterioration is a mixture of the above. Example: Fruit- shelf life is a function of (1) ripening = natural enzymes, o
3. Canning = commercial sterilization = retorting
a. Severe heat treatment to kill spoilage MO and any Clostridium botulinum spores. b. Required for products with pH's > 4.6 (1) most meats, vegetables c. Not a true sterilization for some very h
2. branched: (amylopectin)
B. Typical starch is
75% amylopectin 25% amylose
C. Waxy starch= 95-100% amylopectin 1. Developed to reduce the undesirable reactions of amylose
V. Properties/Terminology A. Suspension VI. G
Developed in England in 1976; by accident. 110 animal and human studies
B. Role of simple carbohydrates: Texture of foods 1. Crystal formation 2. Influences appearance and texture of candies and frozen desserts 3. Fudge and other confections depend on
c. fiber and gums- polymers of sugars that are indigestible plant glues! Pectin, Agar, Xanthan III. Functions in foods A. Sweetness 1. nutritive = caloric= energy 2. non-nutritive = "low calorie" = little or no energy artificial sweeteners = synthetic (ma
a. Calcium, Magnesium, Iron b. Chloride, carbonate, sulfate c. Problems: (1) Scale: heating hard water = precipitates "lime-away" = phosphoric acid (2) poor cleaning of soaps (3) Color and flavor reactions in foods (a) Iron (Fe) is main problem: reacts wi
1. 70-99% water WATER is the major component of many foods III. Properties of water in foods A. Structure B. Related to the structure of a water molecule
1. Water is a dipole (has both positive and negative charges) 2. Since opposite charges attract, mole
4.Estimated 500,000 cases per year 5. Onset: 1-7 days 6. Duration: 3-7 days (fatality similar to Salmonella) 7. General a. Sign of a very filthy/contaminated operation. b. Shigella is associated with feces, raw sewage, rodent or pest contamination. Handwa
e. Infants, aged, infirm, immunocompromised, pregnant = serious threat http:/www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm B. From: Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States: Food and Drug Administration 2003 Paul S. Mead, Lauren
The Science of Food
I. What is food? A. What was your "food" before it was "your food"? B. Most foods were living organisms: plants, animals = humans originally omnivores. (What are some foods that weren't alive?) 1.-Cells, biochemicals, structural materi
Mike Mangino 313 Parker Hall 292-7769
Karen Elekes! 110 Parker Hall 292- 3928!
40% Nutrition in the broadest sense!
There is no required text
All notes on Carmen Not exactly as lecture
50% Food Safety!
1. Def: Intentional growth of a "friendly" MO which produces compounds which preserve food. Two main types: Acidic fermentations: lactic, acetic Alcoholic fermentations: ethanol 2. Various bacteria and yeasts 3. Examples:
Distilled Spirits: 1) Same, except that Hops are not added. Sour "mash" allows for the production of a small amount of lactic acid also.
Typically corn, rice, potatoes, wheat can be used. Sometimes molasses (results in"rum"), sometimes cactus juice! = teq
UNIT 2: DIGESTION, NUTRIENT NEEDS & DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
Digestion is the physiological process of breaking down food into smaller molecules of nutrients
so they may be absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body.
What is food com
UNIT 1: TO EAT OR NOT TO EAT
Daily Reference Value
UL Tolerable Upper Limit
AI Acceptable Intake
How much do we need?
What happens to it once
we eat it?
Why do we eat?
Why do we eat?
How much do we need?
Purpose of this portion of the lecture
Should this be consider a minimum, an average
requirement or a goal?
Why do the recommendations change?
How should they be used?
The RDA are establish
Food chart questions:
1) For the most part, I meet the RDA for being a 20 year old male. I could use more folate
although I imagine Im getting enough of that but that it wasnt on my food labels.
2) Many of my calorie
The Science of Food: FDSC&TE 201 5 credits Autumn 2009
Professor: Dr. Jeff Culbertson Office: 315 Parker Hall Phone: 688-4219; firstname.lastname@example.org Office Hours: hour before and after class or other times by appointment Text: None: Lecture packet availab
2. Lard a. Also hydrogenated b. Fatty acids are "shuffled" = transesterification
Because of their ability to "shorten" in a superior fashion, lard and plastic fats are preferred in the baking industry. 3. Butter or Margarine a. Less "workable" at room tem
3. Cheese a. When casein precipitates (forms a gel), 99% of the butterfat is trapped and emulsified. b. "Imitation" cheese or "Lite" cheese (1) lite = make from 2% milk (a) may replace a portion of the fat with vegetable oil (2) imitation (a) NFDM, casein
V. Fat Substitutes (Food Technology March, 1990) A. Create same textural sensations as lipids, but are different molecules. B. Protein based: 1. Simplesse (Nutrasweet Co. = Monsanto) 2. Trailblazer (Kraft and Co.) a. Based on milk or egg protein = micropa