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1) The range of governor salary is between 70,000 in Maine to 180,000 in New York with a
mean salary of around $130,000. The Texas Governor makes close to 150,000
2) If governorship is vacant will pass to the lieutenant governor.
3) What ar
What was the main idea of todays lecture?
1) What is a Run-off?
Usually just take the person with most votes and he is candidate. Some states, especially
southern states, require winning candidate in primary have 50% of the vote. If this is not true,
have
Known probability and unknown probability
Simple random sample
o Systematic sample: sampling interval with a random start
o Stratified sample: used to ensure appropriate representation
Proportionate
Nonproportionate
o No probability samples (not propor
Experiment
Control
Pre
O1
O2
Manipulation
O/?
Post
O3
O4
Difference
O3 O1
O4 O2
a.i. 2 groups:
a.i.1.
experimental given actual test/product/etc
a.i.2.
control given placebo
a.ii. Pretest/Postest
a.ii.1.
On = observation
a.iii. Manipulation
a.iii.1.
With
Research Design & Data Collection
Observation
Questionnaire
Experiment
Natural Variation
Case Study
Secondary Sources
Not applicable
because lack of
control of sources
*cannot use secondary sources with classic experiment design
Formal models
abstract va
1)
Formulate NULL HYPOTHESIS & RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
a. Research hypothesis
a.i. x affects y
b. Null hypothesis
b.i. x does not affect y/ there is no relationship displayed
c. Logic: if we can reject the null hypothesis, then it is possible that the researc
Nominal (y)
Ordinal (y)
Nominal (x)
x
Ordinal (x)
Rho, Kendall, Tau
Interval (x)
Pearson correlation
with R and
Interval (y)
Nominal variables
example: correlation between gender and politics
Observed:
Male
Female
Total
Republican
15
5
20
Democrat
10
10
a. Cross-sectional vs. Panel studies
Republican
Democrat
Male
60%
25%
Female
40%
40%
Undecided
15%
20%
Total
100%
100%
a.i. Cross-sectionalimply that each combination of independent/dependent
variables is a unique event
a.ii. Panelsame entity, different p
Content Analysis
Time sampling (once a month for 20 years; every day for 5 months, etc.)
Content addressed (academic issues; sports; community/national issues, etc.)
Categories what does the content represent? What is the content?
Recording unit (number o
Green= control, blue=experiment (or vice versa)
t = (difference between means of groups) / (variability between groups)
The Strategy of Hypothesis Testing
1) Theories are general causal statements of how the world works
a. Example: theories of economic vo