254.257
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1) The range of governor salary is between 70,000 in Maine to 180,000 in New York with a
mean salary of around $130,000. The Texas Governor makes close to 150,000
2) If governorship is
What was the main idea of todays lecture?
1) What is a Run-off?
Usually just take the person with most votes and he is candidate. Some states, especially
southern states, require winning candidate in
Known probability and unknown probability
Simple random sample
o Systematic sample: sampling interval with a random start
o Stratified sample: used to ensure appropriate representation
Proportionate
Experiment
Control
Pre
O1
O2
Manipulation
O/?
Post
O3
O4
Difference
O3 O1
O4 O2
a.i. 2 groups:
a.i.1.
experimental given actual test/product/etc
a.i.2.
control given placebo
a.ii. Pretest/Postest
a.ii
Research Design & Data Collection
Observation
Questionnaire
Experiment
Natural Variation
Case Study
Secondary Sources
Not applicable
because lack of
control of sources
*cannot use secondary sources wi
1)
Formulate NULL HYPOTHESIS & RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
a. Research hypothesis
a.i. x affects y
b. Null hypothesis
b.i. x does not affect y/ there is no relationship displayed
c. Logic: if we can reject th
Nominal (y)
Ordinal (y)
Nominal (x)
x
Ordinal (x)
Rho, Kendall, Tau
Interval (x)
Pearson correlation
with R and
Interval (y)
Nominal variables
example: correlation between gender and politics
Observe
a. Cross-sectional vs. Panel studies
Republican
Democrat
Male
60%
25%
Female
40%
40%
Undecided
15%
20%
Total
100%
100%
a.i. Cross-sectionalimply that each combination of independent/dependent
variable
Content Analysis
Time sampling (once a month for 20 years; every day for 5 months, etc.)
Content addressed (academic issues; sports; community/national issues, etc.)
Categories what does the content r
Green= control, blue=experiment (or vice versa)
t = (difference between means of groups) / (variability between groups)
The Strategy of Hypothesis Testing
1) Theories are general causal statements of