The torque of a force has a magnitude that is given by the magnitude F of the force times the lever arm : = F . The lever arm is the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and
A wave is a traveling disturbance and carries energy from place to place. In a transverse wave, the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. In a longitudinal wave, the dis
Convection is the process in which heat is carried by the bulk movement of a fluid. During natural convection, the warmer, less dense part of a fluid is pushed upward by the buoyant force provided by
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics built upon the laws obeyed by energy in the form of work and heat. A thermodynamic system is the collection of objects on which attention is being focused, and
Fluids are materials that can flow. The mass density of any substance is its mass m divided by its volume V: = m/V. In the presence of gravity, the upper layers of a fluid push downward on the layer
Displacement is a vector that points from an object's initial position toward its final position. The magnitude of the displacement is the shortest distance between the two positions. The average spee
Chapter 13 - "The Transfer of Heat"
Convection the process in which heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement of a fluid. Conduction the process whereby heat is transferred directly t
In uniform circular motion, an object of mass m travels at a constant speed v on a circular path of radius r. The period T of the motion is the time required for one revolution. The speed, the period,
Cutnell/Johnson Physics
Chapter 10-15 Formulas
Chapter 10 - "Elasticity and Simple Harmonic Motion" Hooke's Law
F s kx
F s spring force , k spring constant , x displacement
a
k x m
a accelera
Chapter 7 - "Impulse and Momentum"
p mv Impulse Ft p linear momentum
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Ft mv f mv o
Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum The total linear momentum of an isolated
Chapter 3 - "Kinematics in Two Dimensions"
Projectile Motion
y v o
vy
o
x
vx
o
v x v x v o cos o constant o x = v x t (v o cos o )t o vy vy y vy t
o o
gt v o sin o gt
1 2 1 gt (
Chapter 6 - "Work and Energy"
W (F cos )s 1 joule = 1 newton - meter
KE
Work-Energy Theorem
1 mv 2 2
KE Kinetic Energy
W KEf KE o
1 1 2 mv f 2 mv o 2 2
Potential Energy
PE mgh PE Gravi
Chapter 8 - "Rotational Kinematics"
0
t t0 t
average angular velocity angular displacement
(rad / s)
(rad )
(rad / s 2 )
0
t t0
t
average angular acceleration
o t 1
Chapter 9 - "Rotational Dynamics"
torque = F
F force lever arm
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
Fx
0 and
Fy
0
Center of Gravity
x cg
I
0
W 1 X 1 W 2 X 2 W 1 W 2
(moment of inertia )
Cutnell/Johnson Physics
Chapters 16 and 17 Formulas
Chapter 16 - "Waves and Sound"
Wave Motion
f
1 T
f frequency , T period
v f v velocity , wavelength , f frequency
Speed of Wave in Str
Physics is an experimental science that uses precisely defined units of measurement. This text emphasizes SI (Systeme International) units, a system that includes the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), and
There must be at least one source or generator of electrical energy in an electric circuit. The electromotive force (emf) of a generator, such as a battery, is the maximum potential difference (in vol
Chapter 2 - "Kinematics in One Dimension"
x x x o v t t to
v = average velocity x = displacement t = time
v lim
a
x t 0 t
v = instantaneous velocity
v v v o t t to
a = average accelerati
Chapter 12 - "Temperature and Heat" T = Tc + 273.15
T = Temperature in Kelvins, Tc = Temperature in Celsius degrees Linear Thermal Expansion
L = L0T
L0 = original length, = coefficient of linear ex
When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of rotation perpendicularly. The
Each element in the periodic table is assigned an atomic mass. One atomic mass unit (u) is exactly one-twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12. The molecular mass of a molecule is the sum of the atom
When work WAB is done by an electric force as a posi-tive test charge +q0 moves from point A to point B, the work equals the electric potential energy EPE at A minus that at B: WAB = EPEA - EPEB. The
Motion in two dimensions can be described in terms of the time t and the x and y components of four vectors: the displacement, the acceleration, the final velocity, and the initial velocity. The motio
Chapter 20 - "Electric Circuits"
I
q t
Ohm's Law
I = current (amperes) q = charge (coulombs) t = time (seconds)
V
IR
Resistance and Resistivity
V = voltage (volts) I = current (amperes) R = resi
Cutnell/Johnson Physics
Chapters 1-9 Formulas Chapter 1 - "Introduction and Mathematical Concepts"
Trigonometry Review - Vector
c a b
a2 b2 c2
sin
a c
cos
b c
tan
a b
Components
A
Chapter 19 - "Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential"
Electric Potential
V
EPE qo
1 electron volt = 1.6 x 10-19 J
V = Electric potential (J/C = V) EPE = Electric Potential Energy (J)
Newton's first law of motion or law of inertia states that an object continues in a state of rest or in a state of motion at a constant speed along a straight line unless compelled to change that stat
On the Celsius temperature scale, there are 100 equal divisions between the ice point (0 C) and the steam point (100 C). On the Fahrenheit temperature scale, there are 180 equal divisions between the
The principle of linear superposition states that when two or more waves are present simultaneously at the same place, the resultant disturbance is the sum of the disturbances from the individual wave
The force that must be applied to stretch or compress an ideal spring is FApplied = kx, where k is the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring from its unstrained length. A spring exer