1. A homozygous yellow pea plant is crossed with a homozygous green pea plant, Yellow is the dominant
trait for pea plants:
A) Key: Y=yellow y=green
B) Genotype of yellow pea plant: _YY
C) Genotype of green pea plant: _yy_ D) Draw the Punnett square of th
For DNA replication, an eukaryotic chromosome has
thousands of origins of replications
when DNA is taken up by one bacterial cell from the environment
Heat-killed type _ bacteria plus live _ bacteria were able to kill mice even though
What is the wild type allele indicated by?
What were the factors crucial to the success of Gregor Mendel's experiments?
he kept detailed quantitative records, he chose traits that were not greatly
influenced by the environment, and he observed only one
In cats, curled ears (Cu) results from an allele that is dominant over an allele for
normal ears (cu). Black color results from an independently assorting allele (G) that
is dominant over an allele for gray (g). A gray cat homozygous for curled ears is
1)In sexual reproduction what fraction of the genes does each parent contribute to the
2) The male gamete (sex cell) is the:
3) How many chromosomes are there in a persons body cells?
4) A human male carries th
Where in the pathway between DNA and functional protein can gene expression be
A caterpillar and a moth have the same genome, how is it possible that they look and
Different genes are expressed in the two diffe
General Genetics spring 2015. Final exam.
Nobody noticed that the final is 90 points rather than 100. That was inadvertent, sorry. So your grades on this are out of 90, not out
1. Laying blue-shelled eggs is an autosomal trait in the common chicke
Quiz 8. Gene expression regulation. 10 pts.
The first column of the table lists genotypes of 3 E. coli strains (wild type and 2 lac operon mutants.) Fill out the table
with what happens in presence or in absence of lactose (=whether the transcription of t
1) Write the equation of a parabola that would pass through the points
(1,5) (2, 4)
using a system of equations. Show your work.
For #2-4, you know that the vertex of a parabola is in the 1 st quadrant. You also know tha
General Genetics spring 2012. Final exam 100 pts. Always explain your answers in problems and show your calculations. Guessed answers are not
1. (10 pts) White-faced, red, horned (Hereford) cattle are crossed to solid, black, hornless (Angus)
2.1.1. A, B, and C are linked genes (alleles A and a, B and b, C and c). Complete
dominance for all.
AaBb x aabb crossing results:
# of individuals that have it
a) Determine the distance between genes A and B.
What mechanisms allow for the isolation of species (key to the biological species
Prezygotic isolation: Individuals of a different species are
prevented from mating
o Impeding different species from attempting to mate
(habitat, temporal, behavi
Sympatric Speciation: Speciation takes place in geographically
o Researchers didnt originally believe that this could occur since
gene flow is still possible
Predicted that gene flow would easily overwhelm any
differences among po
Stabilizing Selection favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme
phenotypes. Those in the middle reproduce more than others
o Newborn humans with a birth weight in the middle of the range are
more likely to survive
Disruptive selection favors
Understand/Memorize: Evolution acts on INDIVIDUALS but produces changes in a
Diversification Lecture 4 Mechanisms of Evolution 2
How does sexual selection and the good alleles hypothesis work?
Sexual selection is natural selection for mating
2. Individuals with certain heritable traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce. Natural selection occurs when individuals with certain traits
produce more offspring than do individuals without those traits.
What is evolution by NATURAL S
What happens at fertilization?
Fertilization beings when the haploid nuclei of sperm and egg come
together, forming a diploid zygote
The sperms contact with the eggs surface initiates metabolic reactions in
the egg the trigger the onset of embryonic dev
Genetics Lecture 7 Pedigrees and Polygenic Traits
How do you use a pedigree to determine inheritance of a trait?
Rules of Pedigree Analysis:
If it skips generations (or is only as carrier in a generation), it is recessive
If normal parents have afflicte
Whats an example of an autosomal dominant disease?
o Affects people later in life so it is not wiped out by evolution
How do you determine the percent likelihood a person will be normal, a carrier, or
Punnett square. 2/3 of
Genetics Lecture 9 Populations and Allele Frequencies
What is the mc1r allele, MC1R protein, and how do they affect color in beach mice?
mc1r allele is located in chromosome #16
o Codes for the MC1R protein that is involved in intracellular
What is the order of the major steps in the evolution of life on Earth?
Life on Earth
o Oldest fossils are stromatolites from 3.5 billion years ago
o Most O2 is of biological origin
o Oxygen reacted with dissolved iron to form banded iron
Genetics Lecture 6 Dominance and Sex-linked Traits
What are the three degrees of dominance?
o Phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are
Red x White = Red
o The phenotypes of F1 hybrids
How do you construct a phylogenetic tree?
1. Choose characters that differ among groups
2. Create a table or matrix of the characters
3. Construct possible trees (hypotheses)
4. Mark characters on trees
5. Choose hypothesis (tree) with the fewest num