1. The Glass Ceiling and the Glass Escalator/Elevator
a. The Glass Ceiling effect is the invisible institutional barrier based on
attitudinal or organization bias, that prevents qualified and deserving
people from advancing upward to top management-leve
1. The Gendered Division of Paid Work
a. Women are entered in the paid labor force in unprecedented numbers in
a.i. Recently the proportion of male employees has decrease and the
proportion of female employees has increased.
1. The Functionalist Perspective
a. Functionalists frequently examine employment opportunities and the wage
gap between men and women.
b. According to Talcott Parsons, gender inequality is inevitable because of
the biological division of labor.
1. Sports and Gender Socialization
a. Boys participation in sports is roughly one and one-half times that of
a.i. Athletic participation must be viewed as more than just play.
This promotes a greater equality in society or it can
1. Gender Socialization by Parents
a. Parents maintain gender distinctions between boys and girls through
a.i. Boys are thought to be less fragile than girls.
Parents are more likely to play with a boy infant
1. Sexual Harassment
a. This is a form of intentional gender discrimination.
a.i. This includes all unwelcome sexual attention that affects an
employees job conditions or creates a hostile work environment.
b. Sexual Harassment can occur in various forms.
What Is Sociology?
The American Sociological Association (2006) describes
sociology as the study of social life, social change, and the
social causes and consequences of human behavior. The
ASA contends that sociologists investigate the structure of
Debunking and Being Skeptical
According to Berger, it's the job of sociology to debunk
commonly accepted notions about society. Debunking is a
process of questioning actions and ideas that are usually
taken for granted. It refers to looki
Chapter 4: Gender Inequality
1. Defining Sex and Gender
a. Sex is the biological differences between females and males.
a.i. This is the first label received in life
a.ii. We are labeled on the basis of our sex organs and genes
b. Gender is the cultural
1. Functionalist/Conservative Solutions to the Problem of Gender Inequality
a. Although women and men have different gender roles, this does not
necessarily mean that gender inequality exist.
b. In day-to-day life gender differences can contribute to the