As the 19th century drew to a close, the rapid development of cities served as
both a uniting and diving factor in American social, economic, and political life.
Cities attracted a rich cross-section of the worlds population, creating a
A buffer is a compound that protects against
sharp changes in pH
Most buffers are weak acids, e.g., acetic acid
When an acid has given up its proton, it becomes its
own conjugate base
Conjugate base (acetate)
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries Americans developed a unique system
of government with revolutionary ideals never seen anywhere else before.
Americans adopted representative governments with democratic principles
that allowed each person to have a