Systems Pt. 2
Vesicle Transport and the Endocytic
Goals of this minilecture
and contrast COPI, COPII, and clathrin protein
coatings for vesicle transport.
sorting of proteins in the Trans Golgi Network
Cell Motility part
The skeletal system of the cell
Goals for this minilecture
of the major functions of the cytoskeleton.
Kinesins and Dyneins
Elongation and catastrophy
Structure of the cilia and flag
Systems Pt. 3
Translocation in the ER and the
Mitochondria and a human disease
Goals for minilecture
of proteins to the mitochondria
of peptides to the ER
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
1) The Protein of Interest, X
"(or a nuclear/cell extract containing it)
2) Radiolabeled DNA probe, with sequence Y
3) Unlabeled random-sequence DNA (competitor)
4) (Antibody recognizing Protein X)
RNA Regula/on in Bacteria
Types of RNA Regula/on in Bacteria
Protein binding regulators
Challenges and history of riboswitch iden/ca/on
RNA cis-ac/ng Regulators:
Parts of the m
Walther Flemming the father of cytogenetics
(described division of the Cell Nucleus)
Omnis nucleus e nucleo
from, Flemming: Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung; 1882
(Cell substance, Nucleus and Cell Division)!
Flemming first used the term Mit
Cells can halt the cell cycle when:!
1) DNA replication is not properly completed!
2) Any chromosomal DNA is damaged!
!(e.g., by radiation)!
3) Chromosomes not attached to spindle!
Yeast = Start !
Mammals = Restriction Point !
Drosophila (fruit fly) early embryo (one cell):!
(Drosophila spindle protein-GFP)!
Example 2: Slime mold Physarum polycephalum
Inches in diameter
Example 3: Multinucleated HeLa Cells
(Kinase knockdown by RNAi)
Rannou et al. (2012)
Salvador Luria !
Nobel Laureate, 1969!
Nobel Prize for Physiology & Medicine, 1978
Type II REs recognize and cut short (4-8 bp)
"palindromic (inverted repeat*) sequences
REs are produced by bacteria and archaea
Cells Respond to
Embryonic Stem Cells are "Pluripotent"
Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Treated
with "Chordin" and Growth Factors
work of Yoshiki Sasai and colleagues (2011-2012)
Stem Cell Self-p
Closed circular DNA (no nicks) can be!
!Caused by cutting & unwinding
Membrane protein- make up 50% of membrane mass
Channels+transporters, anchors, receptors, enzymes
Lateral diffusion- because membranes are fluid, proteins can just move around, within a
given bilayer (More info?)
monolayer associated a
Portal System= two capillary beds joined in a series that connect key organ systems to
the circulation and where one major capillary bed drains into another
What forms the basis of the vertebrate circulatory system?
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
Chemical cellular tissue organ body organism
-Connective= physical barrier that supports
-Epithelial= protects the surface of the body, lines hollow organs, synthesizes and