Darwin's Conversion" The
FRANK J. SULLOWAY
Department of Psychology and Social Relations
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
I feel not a shade of surprise at your entirely rejecting m y views:
m y surprise is
Lab Activity: Measuring with Metric
The purpose of this activity is to practice using the metric system. To conduct a scientific investigation, a
researcher must be able to make accurate measurements. In todays exer
for High School Sciences
learn about new advances in
see how this technology applies to the
Types of Tissue Culture
The types of tissue culture can be grouped by
the structures formed in culture.
Hartmann and Kesters Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices 8th ed. Hudson Hartman
There are factors that affect photosynthesis changing these factors are: Temperature, Light
intensity, and concentration of carbon dioxide.
When the temperature rises the rate of photosynthesis rises also. This is
Unit 7 : Plant nutrition
Green plants make their own food from sunlight.
Carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
Test for starch
A plant is left in a dark cupboard for a few days so it doesnt produce any more starch
A leaf is boiled in
As food is digested the products are absorbed into the blood. There are a number of
adaptations which increases the surface area for absorption.
1. The ileum is long and narrow which produces a larger surface area than a
short broad tube.
2. The ile
W hen the food reaches the stomach gastric juice is released from the stomach lining.
Gastric juice contains two substances.
1. Pepsin - an enzyme which breaks proteins down into shorter chains called
2. Hydrochloric acid - needed to
Ingestion: taking food into a living organism
Digestion: Breaking down large insoluble food molecules into small soluble ones
Absorption: The process by which food molecules enter the blood stream
Assimilation: Making use of the absorbed food su
Carbohydrates are made in the chemical structure of carbon , hydrogen and oxygen.
Monosaccharides: they are the simplest carbohydrate units; they are soluble in water and have
a sweet taste. E.g. glucose. Their formula, C6H12O6
Unit 6 : Nutrition and digestion
Nutrition is obtaining food materials from the
environment for growth and repair.
Tests for Food
Unit 5 : Enzymes
Enzymes are portions that act like biological catalysts which speed up reactions. Each
enzyme is specific for 1 chemical reaction or in a stage in a series reaction. Most enzymes are
inside the cell but some act outside it.
Unit 4 : Diffusion, active transport
All the chemicals reacting in the cells need to get in and out either by a Passive
process: This doesnt need energy e.g. osmosis and diffusion or an active process:
one that requires energy e.g. active tran
Specialization of cells 1-4 (plants) 5-9 (animal)
1. Root hair cell: It has long hairs to increase surface area of the cell. It has a large
number of mitochondria to provide energy for active up take.
2. Xylem vessels: It transports water and minerals to
Unit 3 : Cell Structure
A cell is the smallest part of an organism all cels consist of a membrane, cytoplasm and a
Difference between plant and animal cells
Food stored within
Adaptation to insects on life on lands
Body covered in flexible chateaus exoskeleton
1 or 2 pair of wings
Joined legs for quick movement
Can live on all food materials
Can camouflage to hide from enemies
Chordates (or Vertebrates)
Chordates are vertebrate
There are two main groups in the animal kingdom. The chordates and the invertebrates. The
invertebrates consist of Nematodes, Annelids, Molluscs and Arthropods.
Comparison between Annelids, Nematodes and Molluscs.
Arthropods are divided into insec
Plants produce seeds from inside the flower. The plant kingdom is divided into algae, ferns,
mosses, and seed plants. Seed plants are divided into conifers and angiosperms. Angiosperms
are devided into two groups Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.
It reproduces asexually by spore formation or by budding (in yeast) but in bad conditions
it reproduces sexually for survival
Single fungi cell
Structure of a mould fungus
Budding is when a yeast cell splits into two cells and it keeps happ
No chloroplast in most of them
They are either saprophytes or
cell wall (not made of cellulose)
Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission every 20 mins (if conditions are suitable) IF
conditions are not well some species can for spores for
Few features in common
Many features in common
A specie is a group of organisms that share the many similar appearances and can bread with
each other. Species are scient
Biology is the study of living organisms. For something to be alive it needs to perform all seven
functions of living things.MRS GREN
Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.
Most organisms are able to mo
The retina is the light sensitive layer which is responsible for 'seeing' light. The retina is
composed of two types of light sensitive cells.
These cells are capable of seeing only different degree's of light intensity and cannot
Unit 14 : The Eye
Sclera: a tough coat that protects the eye from the inside.
Choroid: A layer that absorbs light so no internal reflection happens
Retina: contains light sensitive cells.
Yellow spot: The highest concentration of rods and cones
The synapse is a junction where two or more nerve cells meet. The synapse allows the
nerve cells to pass on their electrical impulse to another cell. The synapse is also a way
of controlling the direction in which impulses travel. They can only tr
These neurons carry impulses away from the CNS towards effecter organs like muscles
or glands. These cells have very long axons at the end of which are motor end plates
where the nerve cell can stimulate the effecter organ.
The reflex arc
Interneuron (relay neurone):
Relays message from sensory neurone to motor neurone
Make up the brain and spinal cord
The sensory neuron gathers information from the senses and passes it on to the central
nervous system (CNS). It is attached