All of these organisms Have been around for A very long time!
Two animal groups included:
Possess a lophophore (a feeding apparatus that has hollow tentacles)
Molluscs, annelids Have a trochoph
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 10.31.07 Natural Selection Darwin's Grand Idea 1) Natural Selection a Differential reproductive success (i) Higher mean reproductive success of one type relative to another b Due to relationship between phenotype
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 10.19.07
Heritability 1) Can be thought of as the tendency of offspring to resemble their parents because of genetic similarity (i) Study at University of Washington on parent/offspring height Measured parent
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 9.12.07
The Fish: The Story of Stickleback I) Gasterosteus aculeatus L. 1) Family Gasterosteidae a Close relative of pipefishes and seahorses b Small fish (2-8 cm at maturity) c Can be reared fairly easily in the
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 10.10.07
A Phylogeny of monkeyflowers (mimulus) and kin Ancestral type: Bee-pollinated Bees do not see well in red Need landing platform Derived type: Hummingbird pollinated [evolved twice; great similarity
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 10.22.07
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (No Evolution) (Genetic Equilibrium) Derived Independently in 1908 by: o Godfrey Hardy o Wilhelm Weinberg No change in: Allele frequencies between generations Genotype frequen
NATURAL SELECTION; DARWIN'S GRAND IDEA =Differential reproductive success among geneticallybased phenotypes -Due to relationship between phenotype and environment EXPLAINED ADAPTATION =Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 10.1.07
Discrete (Qualitative) vs. Quantitative Traits
1) Qualitative (Discrete/Categorical) Traits a Can be categorized Red, blue, yellow, curly, straight b Are typically Mendelian (i) Influenced primarily
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 8.29.07
Evolution I: All of the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes life today. (Most books are just descriptions of evolutionary biology.)
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 11.7.07
1) Selection on Quantitative Traits a Directional selection (i) Selection against individuals at one end of the phenotype distribution in favor of individuals at the other extreme Rabbits in Australia 1859
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 9.24.07
Evolution - Change in gene frequency between generations in a population I) Requirements for Evolution 1) Variation a Key mutations that lead to traits for natural selection to act upon Examples: Liguus f
Dr. Susan Foster BIOL 105 Evolution 9.5.07
History of Evolutionary Thought 1) Immutability of Species a Definition: Species, once present, do not change over time. b Firmly rooted in Western beliefs c Origin in Greek philosophy d Reinforced in
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 11.26.07 MUTATIONS! (cont'd) 1) Chromosome inversions a 2 double strand breaks in chromosome (i) segment detaches, flips, reanneals (improperly/backwards) (ii) inverted sequence cannot align properly with normal ho
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 11.16.07
MUTATIONS! 1) Mutation a Ultimate source of all variation b Source of all evolutionary novelty c Without mutation, evolution would stop E. coli lines grown from single cells in a challenging medium St
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 12.3.07
Migrations & Gene Flow 1) Migration a Movement of individuals between populations b Causes GENE FLOW 2) Gene Flow a Movement of alleles between populations b Caused by MIGRATION 3) Migration Rates Vary
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 12.10.07 I) Units of Selection 1) Allele, cell, organism, family, social group, species 2) Consider: a Specialist insect vs. generalist b Generalist eats many plants c A specialist in the population eats only the b
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution 11.28.07
The Evolution of Life Histories 1) A life history consists of the overall set of traits an organism possesses that directly affect the number of successful offspring it produces a These are sometimes
Darren Rothberg Biol 105 Evolution
Alpine Sky Pilot: Polemonium viscosum Rocky Mountain wildflower Near the timberline: pollinated by flies, small solitary bees and some bumblebees Higher tundra: bumblebees are only pollinators Flowers here are 12%
How is the typical "posture" of a fish different from that of a land animal?
Girdles and limbs
The limbs are the distal portions of the appendicular skeleton. They typically consist of a combination of long and short bones attached to the l
Ijspeert, AJ, A. Crespi, D. Ryczko, and J-M Cabelguen. 2007. From swimming to walking with a salamander robot driven by a spinal cord model. Science 315:1416-1420.
9 March 2007
A tunicate (sea squirt) Obelia
*Urochordata *Cephalochordata * CRANIATA *Vertebrata
Two clusters of HOX genes Other gene families (that produce signaling molecules and transcription factors) also duplicated Neural crest
Neural crest cells give r
A key innovation Found in arthropods, annelids, chordates, and misc. others Blocking out of an embryo into regions where specific body parts will eventually develop Segmentation determined early in development Differential expressio
ECOLOGY (1) OIKOS:
GREEK WORD MEANING HOME
(2) STUDY OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS *ABIOTIC *BIOTIC (3) DIFFERS FROM EVOLUTION IN *TIME SCALE *NATURE OF RESPONSE
LEVELS OF ECOLOGICAL STUDY
POPULATION: A group of i
When did animals evolve?
The "Cambrian Explosion"
~ 550 million years ago Burgess shales Chinese fossil beds
The Edicaria Hills of Australia
Precambrian fossil animals ~ 600 million years ago?
You are here.
So. the first animal may