Presented by : Widly Bazelais,
Leslie Ketsia Elysee, Jennifer Glen and
What is Newborn Screening (NBS)?
History of NBS
Test performed for NBS
Controversies of NBS
By: Mia Kim, Sam Son and Karla Guerrero
Order of Presentation
Reason for the method
What is mitochondrial
Utilization of Stem
What are embryonic stem cells
Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop
from eggs that have been fertilized in vitroin an in vitro fertilization
a presentation by:
Topics to Cover
Genetic Counseling: An Overview
Reasons for Genetic Testing
Genetic Counselors as Support
By: Emma Lewis, Heather
Morley, Katelyn Memory,
Lauren Hevy, and Katy Teare
is animal testing?
Animal Testing is
The use of non-human animals in research
and developmental research, especially
for purposes for determinin
A. GA, which is a transition.
B. TG, which is a transversion.
C. A single-nucleotide deletion.
D. CG, which is a transversion.
Answer: It is a gene mutation, a point mutation, a base substitution, a transition mutation
Answer: A codon contains three nucleotides. Because G and C are present at 50% each, if
we multiply 0.5 0.5 0.5, we get a value of 0.125, or 12.5%, of each of the eight possible
codons. If we look the codons up in Table 13.2, we
Answer: If the physiological adaptation theory had been correct, mutations should have
occurred after the cells were plated on the media containing T1 bacteriophages. Because the
same numbers of bacteria were streaked on each pl
Answer: The location of the intron within the cDNA is shown below.
A. tRNA genes encode tRNA molecules, and rRNA genes encode the rRNAs found in
ribosomes. There are also nonstructural genes for the RNAs found in snRNPs and so
B. The term template strand is still appropriate because o
Answer: It is a double-stranded structure that follows the AT/GC rule.
Answer: Bidirectional replication refers to DNA replication in both directions starting from
Answer: Statement C is not true. A new strand
A. Four generations: 7/8 light, 1/8 half-heavy; five generations: 15/16 light, 1/16 halfheavy
B. All of the DNA double helices would be 1/8 heavy.
C. The CsCl gradient separates molecules according to their densities. 14
Answer: The second possibility, in which molecule A has 4 positive supercoils and
molecule B has 1 negative supercoil fits these data. Molecule A would be more compacted
because it has more supercoils. Also, molecule B would be
Answer: Self-assembly occurs spontaneously, without the aid of other proteins. Directed
assembly involves the aid of proteins that are not found in the mature viral coat.
Answer: Viruses also need sequences that enable them to
Answer: A trait of pneumococci is the ability to synthesize a capsule. There needs to be a
blueprint for this ability. The blueprint for capsule formation was being transferred from
the type IIIS to the type IIR bacteria. (Note:
Answer: The term genetic material refers to the actual substance that contains genetic
information. It is usually DNA, but in some viruses it can be RNA.
Answer: The transformation process is described in Chapter 6.
1. A fragm
Answer: Genetic recombination is a term that refers to a new combination of alleles in an
offspring. Crossing over is a physical event that involves the exchange of pieces of genetic
material between two chromosomes.
Experimental Questions (Includes Most Mapping Questions)
Answer: If we hypothesize two genes independently assorting, the predicted ratio is
9:3:3:1. The total number of offspring is 427. The expected numbers of offspring are
9/16 427 = 240 purple flo
Answer: Duplications and deficiencies cause a change in the total amount of genetic
material: duplications involve a repeat of some genetic material; deficiencies, a shortage of
some genetic material. Inversions do not cause a cha
Answer: The main goal of CGH is to detect chromosomal deletions and/or duplications.
The green fluorescence is from the DNA from cells of interest, such as cancer cells, while
the red DNA is from normal cells. A hybridization ra
Answer: The results of each succeeding generation depended on the genotypes of the
mothers of the preceding generation. For example, if a mother was dd, the F1 offspring
were all sinistral. The genotypes of the F2 mothers were 1
Answer: Epigenetic inheritance is a pattern in which a modification occurs to a gene or
chromosome that alters gene expression, but the expression is not permanently changed
over the course of many generations. Examples include im